Wayne RESA
Wayne RESA > 9 - 12 > Science > Chemistry MSS Draft (WD)
8 Curriculum Developers
Course Description:
Unit
Unit Abstract
Storyline
Narrative
Learning Targets
Enduring Understandings
Essential Questions
Content (Key Concepts)
Skills (Intellectual Processes)

Unit 1 The Nature of Matter

(Week 1, 4 Weeks)

Wayne RESA MSS/NGSS aligned high school Chemistry Curriculum 2017; including 8 Units to be taught in a year long chemistry course.

Attached below is the Storyline for Units 1 & 2 written together. Investigating the particulate nature of matter as well as matter's interactions can not be separated from each other. It made sense to create a storyline that tied these two important topics together. If a teacher were considering changing a sequence of the storylines, the authors would recommend starting with Units 1 and 2 and presenting them sequentially.

The material in Unit 1 and Unit 2 will work to solidify the 8th grade assessment boundary of PS1.A. The rationale is that until the Michigan Science Standards are entrenched in science teaching K-12, high school chemistry teachers may not be able to rely on students entering the classroom with the 8th grade assessment boundary being met. It will be impossible for students to construct a meaningful, particulate model necessary to build upon without incorporating middle school performance expectations. As the MSS become more prevalent, the high school chemistry teacher will be able to adjust the curriculum of Units 1 and 2 to fit the needs of the students in their district.

In Unit 1, students answer the question, "What is matter?" As they work to answer this question they are reintroduced to mass, volume and density. Students are familiarized with foundational skills including, measurement, significant figures in measurement, graphing, computational reasoning, and proportional reasoning.




U1 What is Matter?

 

L1: How does a Ball shoot out of a cannon?

I CAN make observations.

I CAN discuss ideas within a group about what caused the phenomenon to occur.

I CAN construct a model to explain how the ball was shot out of the cannon.

I CAN explain the model and listen to the explanations of others.

L2: What happens to matter when a change occurs?
I CAN use a balance properly and follow all lab safety expectations.

I CAN make observations and record accurate data.

I CAN use date to determine patterns and begin to draw conclusions.

L3: Why does the mass of a system change?

I CAN analyze data and interpret individual and class data.

I CAN draw conclusions about the change in mass of the system from experimental evidence

I CAN engage in evidence based argument regarding the change in the system.

L4: What is volume and how is it measured?

I CAN make accurate measurements with a ruler and a graduated cylinder.

I CAN graph data and analyze the meaning of the graph.

L5: Does how a measurement is made and recorded affect the outcome?

I CAN use a measuring tool correctly by estimating the final digit.

I CAN determine which tools have a greater degree of precision.

L6: Do Sig Figs Matter?

I CAN determine the number of significant figures in a measurement.

I CAN report the answer to a computation to the correct number of significant figures.

L7: Are mass and volume related?

I CAN accurately measure the mass and volume of an object.

I CAN analyze data and interpret individual and class data.

I CAN graph mass v volume and use the graph to describe the relationship between the two.

I CAN develop a “For Every” statement that describes the relationship between mass and volume.

I CAN use the relationship to predict mass when given the volume

of an object.

L8: How can the relationship between mass and volume be used?

I CAN use the relationship between mass and volume to make predictions about a substance.


Grade Band Endpoints

By the end of grade 8 students should have learned...

PS1.A Properties and Structure of Matter

  • In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.

  • The total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change.

 


Each lesson in a unit begins with a driving question. These questions could be posted on a driving question board or on a summary chart. The teacher should keep in mind that essential questions in a lesson should include student generated questions about the phenomenon.

 

U1: What is Matter?

 

L1: How does a Ball shoot out of a cannon?

L2: What happens to matter when a change occurs?

L3: Why does the mass of a system change?

L4: What is volume and how is it measured?

L5: Does how a measurement is made and recorded affect the outcome?

L6: Do Sig Figs Matter?

L7: Are mass and volume related?volum

L8: How can the relationship between mass and volume be used?


Disciplinary Core Ideas

Pieces of the DCI taken from the FRAMEWORK. The entire DCI is not unpacked, just those pieces related to this unit.

PS1.A

“Within matter, atoms and their constituents are constantly in motion. The arrangement and motion of atoms vary in characteristic ways, depending on the substance and its current state (e.g., solid, liquid).

  • Atoms and molecules are in constant random motion.

  • Phases of matter, solid, liquid, and gas have characteristic particle arrangements.

  • the particles of a solid are not able to move out of their positions relative to one another, but do have small vibrational movements.

  • The particles of a liquid are able to move past each other.

  • The particles of a gas move quickly and are spread apart from one another

 

“Chemical composition, temperature, and pressure affect such arrangements and motions of atoms, as well as the ways in which they interact.”

  • Chemical composition refers to the atoms that make up the substance.

  • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles

  • Pressure is the relationship between the force exerted by the particles per surface area.

  • Increased temperature and pressure increases the interaction of the atoms.

“Under a given set of conditions, the state and some properties (e.g., density, elasticity, viscosity) are the same for different bulk quantities of a substance, whereas other properties (e.g., volume, mass) provide measures of the size of the sample at hand. Materials can be characterized by their intensive measureable properties”

  • Density is an intensive property that can be used to identify substances.

  • Intensive property-doesn't change when you take away some of the sample

  • The mass of a specific volume of a substance is determined by the density.

PS1.B

“However, the total number of each type of atom is conserved (does not change) in any chemical process, and thus mass does not change either. “

  • A chemical change occurs when reactants are regrouped into new substances with new properties.

  • In a chemical change, the total number of atoms on the reactant side must equal the number on the product side.

  • Mass may be lost by the system, but it is gained by the surroundings.

PS2.B

“Collisions between objects involve forces between them that can change their motion.”

  • Atoms and molecules are in constant motion.

  • Collisions of atoms and molecules result in force that can change their motion.

 

 

Targeted Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

Energy and Matter

  • Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes.

Stability and Change

  • Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.


Science and Engineering Practices

Targeted Scientific Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

  • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

  • Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

  • Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.

  • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

  • Refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.

Unit 2 Matter and Interactions

(Week 5, 5 Weeks)

Wayne RESA MSS/NGSS aligned high school Chemistry Curriculum 2017; including 8 Units to be taught in a year long chemistry course.

Attached below is the Storyline for Units 1 & 2 written together. Investigating the particulate nature of matter as well as matter's interactions can not be separated from each other. It made sense to create a storyline that tied these two important topics together. If a teacher were considering changing a sequence of the storylines, the authors would recommend starting with Units 1 and 2 and presenting them sequentially.

In Unit 2, the students work to answer the question, "How Does Matter Interact?" Like the material in Unit 1, Unit 2 will work to solidify the 8th grade assessment boundary of PS1.A. The rationale is that until the Michigan Science Standards are entrenched in science teaching K-12, high school chemistry teachers may not be able to rely on students entering the classroom with the 8th grade assessment boundary being met. It will be impossible for students to construct a meaningful, particulate model necessary to build upon without incorporating middle school performance expectations. As the MSS become more prevalent, the high school chemistry teacher will be able to adjust the curriculum of Units 1 and 2 to fit the needs of the students in their district.

Unit 2 focuses on how matter (specifically gases) is affected by temperature and pressure. A heavy emphasis is placed on students constructing an evidence based explanation for the natural phenomenon know as atmospheric pressure. In Unit 2, students explore and discover the behavior of gases and how it relates to the Kinetic Molecular Theory. As a culminating task, students are asked to use what they have learned about density and gases to meet a specific engineering challenge.




L1: Can particles move?

I CAN cite evidence to support the movement of particles.

I CAN draw and describe the movement of odor from one side of the room to the other.

L2: What causes particles to move?

I CAN draw and describe how particles move and begin to explain what causes the movement.

L2: What causes particles to move?

I CAN draw and describe how particles move and begin to explain what causes the movement.

L4: What does temperature measure?

I CAN describe how particles are affected by changes in temperature.

I CAN predict how liquid water will expand or contract due to temperature

L5: How does a straw work?

I CAN draw and describe what makes a liquid move up a straw.

I CAN explain what is meant by the term vacuum.

L6: Are there air particles everywhere?

I CAN draw and describe how the air particles outside the system (in the surroundings) may affect those inside the system.

I CAN predict how a change in the number of particles in the system may be affected by the particles in the surroundings.

L7: What causes pressure?

I CAN give an evidence based explanation for what causes pressure.


L8: What factors affect the pressure of a gas?

I CAN draw and describe the relationship of the volume of a gas and the pressure of a gas.

I CAN draw and describe the relationship of the volume of the gas and the temperature of a gas.

I CAN draw and describe the relationship between the amount of gas and the pressure of a gas.

I CAN draw and describe the relationship between the pressure of a gas and the temperature of a gas.

L:9 How much?

I CAN use gather experimental data to support the relationships determined in L8.

I CAN graph the data that is collected.

I CAN use the graphs to determine a quantitative relationship between P & V, V & T, P & T, and n & P.

I CAN use the graphs to justify the need for the Kelvin temperature scale.

L10:What is our model so far?

I CAN provide an evidence based explanation for the movement of particles and how temperature, pressure, and volume are related.

L11: How does it all fit? Engineering Challenge

I CAN use what I have learned in Unit 2 to create a Cartesian Diver


 

Grade Band Endpoints

By the end of Grade 8 students should have learned...

PS1.A: Structure and Property of Matter

  • Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving
    about relative to each other.

  • In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact
    with each other; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to
    collide.

  • In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and vibrate in position but do not change relative locations. Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals)


Each lesson in a unit begins with a driving question. These questions could be posted on a driving question board or on a summary chart. The teacher should keep in mind that essential questions in a lesson should include student generated questions about the phenomenon.

U2: How does matter interact?

L1: Can particles move?

L2: What causes particles to move?

L2: What causes particles to move?

L4: What does temperature measure?

L5: How does a straw work?

L6: Are there air particles everywhere?

L7: What causes pressure?


L8: What factors affect the pressure of a gas?

L:9 How much?

L10:What is our model so far?

L11: How does it all fit? Engineering Challenge


Pieces of the DCI taken from the FRAMEWORK. The entire DCI is not unpacked, just those pieces related to this unit.

PS1.A

“Within matter, atoms and their constituents are constantly in motion. The arrangement and motion of atoms vary in characteristic ways, depending on the substance and its current state (e.g., solid, liquid).

  • Atoms and molecules are in constant random motion.

  • Phases of matter, solid, liquid, and gas have characteristic particle arrangements.

  • the particles of a solid are not able to move out of their positions relative to one another, but do have small vibrational movements.

  • The particles of a liquid are able to move past each other.

  • The particles of a gas move quickly and are spread apart from one another

 

“Chemical composition, temperature, and pressure affect such arrangements and motions of atoms, as well as the ways in which they interact.”

  • Chemical composition refers to the atoms that make up the substance.

  • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles

  • Pressure is the relationship between the force exerted by the particles per surface area.

  • Increased temperature and pressure increases the interaction of the atoms.

“Under a given set of conditions, the state and some properties (e.g., density, elasticity, viscosity) are the same for different bulk quantities of a substance, whereas other properties (e.g., volume, mass) provide measures of the size of the sample at hand. Materials can be characterized by their intensive measurable properties”

  • Density is an intensive property that can be used to identify substances.

  • Intensive property-doesn't change when you take away some of the sample

  • The mass of a specific volume of a substance is determined by the density.

PS1.B

“However, the total number of each type of atom is conserved (does not change) in any chemical process, and thus mass does not change either. “

  • A chemical change occurs when reactants are regrouped into new substances with new properties.

  • In a chemical change, the total number of atoms on the reactant side must equal the number on the product side.

  • Mass may be lost by the system, but it is gained by the surroundings.

PS2.B

“Collisions between objects involve forces between them that can change their motion.”

  • Atoms and molecules are in constant motion.

  • Collisions of atoms and molecules result in force that can change their motion.

Targeted Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

Energy and Matter

  • Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes.

Stability and Change

  • Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.


Targeted Scientific Practices

 

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

  • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

  • Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

  • Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.

  • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

  • Refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.


Unit 3 Energy

(Week 10, 4 Weeks)

Wayne RESA MSS/NGSS aligned high school Chemistry Curriculum 2017; including 8 Units to be taught in a year long chemistry course.

Unit 3 focuses on helping students to define energy, and collect evidence to support conservation and transfer of energy between systems and surroundings. After an investigation of how matter interacts in Units 1 and 2, it makes sense to investigate the energy involved in these interactions.

Interactions between objects (particles) can be explained and predicted using the concept of energy transfer. When energy is transferred, the total energy of the system and the surroundings remains constant, this is known as the “Law of Conservation of Energy.” We will limit our discussion here to the thermal energy, as measured by temperature and the changes in potential energy involved in phase transitions.




L1: How does condensation appear on a cold can of soda?

I CAN describe the appearance of droplets on the outside of a cold metal can

I CAN construct a model that explains the appearance of the droplets

I CAN test my explanation for the droplets

I CAN defend my explanation for the droplets with evidence

L2: What role does energy play in condensation?

I CAN predict the transfer of energy between objects of different temperature

I CAN relate the transfer of energy to the condensation of water vapor

L3: How can we compare the energy transferred between systems?

I CAN use a change in temperature to quantify the energy transferred from one system to another

I CAN calculate the energy transferred to or from water in a calorimeter

L4: What determines the temperature change when thermal energy is transferred?

I CAN compare the temperature change in two different systems during an energy transfer

I CAN describe specific heat capacity of a substance

I CAN use temperature change to rank different substances on their ability to change temperature when energy is transferred.

L5: Is energy transfer always related to temperature?

I CAN make a time temperature graph for water being heated from ice to vapor

I CAN recognize the parts of the graph where the temperature is changing

I CAN recognize the parts of the graph where the temperature is not changing

I CAN give an evidence based explanation for the parts of the heating curve where the temperature is not changing and relate that to energy transfer.

L6: Summary of The Model So Far

I CAN explain the energy transfer between water vapor in the air and the cold metal can in terms of particle collisions.

I CAN relate the energy transfer between the water vapor and the can to the formation of water droplets on the can

I CAN refine my model of matter to incorporate the information learned in this unit.


Gradeband endpoints:

By the end of grade 8, students should have learned...

PS1.A Structure and properties of matter

  • changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using the particle model of matter.

PS3.A Definition of energy

  • Motion energy is called kinetic energy and is proportional to the mass of a moving object and grows with the square of its speed

  • Stored (potential) energy depends on position: stored in fields such as gravitational, electric, and magnetic. This energy changes when two objects change position in relation to each other.

  • Stored energy is also changed in chemical reactions.

  • “Heat” is a term that often refers to thermal energy, but is best used as a verb to talk about how energy is transferred between objects of different temperatures.

  • The relationship between the temperature and total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.

PS3.B Conservation and transfer of energy

  • When the motion energy of an object changes, there must be some other energy change at the same time.

  • The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a sample of matter depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.

  • Energy is transferred out of hotter regions or objects into colder ones through conduction, convection, and radiation.

PS3.C Relationship between energy and forces

  • When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object

By the end of grade 12, students should know...

PS3.A Definition of energy

  • Energy is quantitative and depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation

  • The total energy of the universe is conserved, although in is transferred between systems in a variety of ways.

  • Energy can manifest itself in many ways. Some examples are motion, sound, light, thermal energy.

  • “Mechanical energy” refers to some combination of motion and stored energy in an operating machine

  • “Chemical Energy” is used to mean the energy that is stored or released in chemical processes

  • “Electrical energy” may mean energy stored in a battery, or energy transmitted by electric currents.

  • No matter what it is called, at the particulate level all energy can be modeled as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields which mediate interactions between particles.

PS3.B Conservation and transfer of energy

  • The total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place or system to another.

  • Mathematical expressions can quantify how the stored energy in a system depends on its configuration (e.g. relative position of charged particles) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed.

  • The concept of conservation of energy can be used to predict and describe system behavior.

  • The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system.

  • Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states i.e. toward more uniform energy distribution.

  • A system is unstable if it can degrade with no added energy. All such systems will degrade, but if the energy released throughout the transition is small, the process may be very long.

PS3.C Relationship between energy and forces

  • Force fields contain energy and can transmit energy across space from one object to another

  • Small particles such as molecules, ions, atoms, and subatomic particles may have charges or electrical fields that can exert a force field on neighboring particles.

  • When two particle interact and change relative position, the energy stored in the force field is changed

  • Each force between the two interacting particles acts in the direction such that motion in that direction would reduce the energy in the force field between the objects.

 


Each lesson in a unit begins with a driving question. These questions could be posted on a driving question board or on a summary chart. The teacher should keep in mind that essential questions in a lesson should include student generated questions about the phenomenon.

L1: How does condensation appear on a cold can of soda?

L2: What role does energy play in condensation?

L3: How can we compare the energy transferred between systems?

L4: What determines the temperature change when thermal energy is transferred?

L5: Is energy transfer always related to temperature?

L6: What is our model so far?


Pieces of the DCI taken from the FRAMEWORK. The entire DCI is not unpacked, just those pieces related to this unit.

PS3.A Definition of energy

  • Motion energy is called kinetic energy and is proportional to the mass of a moving object and grows with the the square of its speed

  • Stored (potential) energy depends on position: stored in fields such as gravitational, electric, and magnetic. This energy changes when two objects change position in relation to each other.

  • Stored energy is also changed in chemical reactions.

  • “Heat” is a term that often refers to thermal energy, but is best used as a verb to talk about how energy is transferred between objects of different temperatures.

  • The relationship between the temperature and total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.

  • Energy is quantitative and depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation

  • The total energy of the universe is conserved, although in is transferred between systems in a variety of ways.

  • Energy can manifest itself in many ways. Some examples are motion, sound, light, thermal energy.

  • “Mechanical energy” refers to some combination of motion and stored energy in an operating machine

  • “Chemical Energy” is used to mean the energy that is stored or released in chemical processes

  • No matter what it is called, at the particulate level all energy can be modeled as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields which mediate interactions between particles.

PS3.B Conservation and transfer of energy

  • When the motion energy of an object changes, there must be some other energy change at the same time.

  • The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a sample of matter depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.

  • Energy is transferred out of hotter regions or objects into colder ones through conduction, convection, and radiation.

  • The total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place or system to another.

  • Mathematical expressions can quantify how the stored energy in a system depends on its configuration (e.g. relative position of charged particles) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed.

  • The concept of conservation of energy can be used to predict and describe system behavior.

  • The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system.

  • Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states i.e. toward more uniform energy distribution.

  • A system is unstable if it can degrade with no added energy. All such systems will degrade, but if the energy released throughout the transition is small, the process may be very long.

PS3.C Relationship between energy and forces

  • When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object

  • Force fields contain energy and can transmit energy across space from one object to another

  • Small particles such as molecules, ions, atoms, and subatomic particles may have charges or electrical fields that can exert a force field on neighboring particles.

  • When two particles interact and change relative position, the energy stored in the force field is changed

  • Each force between the two interacting particles acts in the direction such that motion in that direction would reduce the energy in the force field between the objects.


Targeted Scientific Practices

 

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

  • Develop and use a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system. (HS-PS3-2),(HS-PS3-5)

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

  • Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly. (HS-PS3-4)

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

  • Create a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system. (HS-PS3-1)

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

  • Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. (HS-PS3-3)

Unit 4 Bonding and Nomenclature

(Week 14, 3 Weeks)

Wayne RESA MSS/NGSS aligned high school Chemistry Curriculum 2017; including 8 Units to be taught in a year long chemistry course.

 

Unit 4 begins to explore bonding by investigating electrical charge. This allows students to have evidence for "opposites attract" and for the existence of a mobile, subatomic, negatively charged particle called the electron. This leads to the discussion of what holds atoms together in compounds. As students are exposed to formulas and nomenclature, they begin to see the patterns of how atoms combine to form compounds. The content and skills of Unit 4 lays the groundwork for Unit 5 Chemical Change.




L1: I know substances can change phase, but what about the cannon?

I CAN recognize the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.

L2: How can we classify substances?

I CAN describe the characteristics of an element, a compound, and a mixture.

I CAN classify matter as a mixture or a pure substance.

L3: Can the components of a pure compounds be separated?

I CAN draw and describe the proportional relationship between atoms in a compound.

L4: What holds atoms together in a compound?

I CAN describe the relationship between charged particles.

I CAN explain how an object becomes polarized.

L5: How do atoms become charged particles?

I CAN use the plum-pudding model to explain how atoms become ions.

I CAN predict the ionic charge of an element using the periodic table.

L6: Are all compounds made up of charged particles?

I CAN predict the conductivity of a solution based on the composition of the compound dissolved in water.

L7: How do metallic and nonmetallic elements form compounds?

I CAN name ionic compounds.

I CAN write the formula for ionic compounds using the correct ratio based on ionic charge.

L8: How do we name compounds that are not ionic?

I CAN write formulas and names for non-ionic compounds.

L9:What is our model so far?

I CAN use what I learned in this unit to identify, classify, and name specific types of matter.


Grade Band Endpoints

By the end of Grade 8 students should have learned...

 

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

  • Pure substances are made from a single type of atom or molecule

  • each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.

 

By the end of grade 12 students should know...

 

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

  • The repeating pattern of the periodic tables allows for students to predict valence electrons and ionic charges for metals and nonmetals.

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

  • The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces
    within and between atoms.

  • Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter,

 


Each lesson in a unit begins with a driving question. These questions could be posted on a driving question board or on a summary chart. The teacher should keep in mind that essential questions in a lesson should include student generated questions about the phenomenon.

 

L1: I know substances can change phase, but what about the cannon?

L2: How can we classify substances?

L3: Can the components of a pure compounds be separated?

I

L4: What holds atoms together in a compound?

L5: How do atoms become charged particles?

L6: Are all compounds made up of charged particles?

L7: How do metallic and nonmetallic elements form compounds?

L8: How do we name compounds that are not ionic?

L9:What is our model so far?


Unpacking the DCIs

Pieces of the DCI taken from the FRAMEWORK. The entire DCI is not unpacked, just those pieces related to this unit.

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

 

“Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.”

  • Charged particles attract oppositely charged particles and repel similarly charged particles.

  • Atoms that lose electrons from their outer shell have a positive charge and are known as cations.

  • Atoms that gain electrons in their outer shell have a negative charge and are known as anions.

 

“The periodic table places elements with similar chemical properties in columns.”

    • Elements with similar properties have same number of outer electrons

    • The number of valence electrons for an element is based on their position in the periodic table

    • The number of valence electrons largely determines the charge on the ion that will be formed.

 

“The repeating patterns of the periodic table reflect patterns of outer electron states.”

    • Atoms will transfer electrons to/from another atom or share electrons with another atom to form compounds.

    • Often atoms react with other atoms to achieve an octet (8 electrons in outermost shell)

    • It is the number of electrons in the outermost shell (valence electrons) that is most important in determining how an atom will react with another atom to form a compound.

“The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms. “

  • Electrons are mobile, protons are “stationary” within the nucleus.

  • The movement of electrons can result in a substance becoming polarized with a higher concentration of electrons at one “pole”.

  • Static electricity (a balloon sticking to the wall) is an observable phenomena that is a result of the mobility of electrons.

 

“Stable forms of matter are those in which the electric and magnetic field energy is minimized.”

  • Cations and anions attract each other resulting in an ionic bond.

  • In an ionic compound the positive charge and the negative charge must be balanced.

  • Covalent compounds consist of non metals. These atoms “share” electrons to create a compound.

 

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

 

“Chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.”

  • Two general types of bonds form during chemical reactions: ionic and covalent

  • Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions.

  • In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion.

  • Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms. This bonding occurs primarily between nonmetals

 

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

 

“Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter…”

  • Positively charged cations attract negatively charged anions to form ionic compounds.

 


Targeted Scientific Practices

 

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

  • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

  • Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

 

Asking Questions

Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

  • Ask questions that arise from careful observation of phenomena, or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek additional information.

  • Ask questions that arise from examining models or a theory, to clarify and/or seek additional information and relationships.

Targeted Cross Cutting Concepts

 

Patterns

  • Observed patterns in nature guide organization and classification and prompt questions about relationships and causes underlying them

 

Systems and System Models

  • A system is an organized group of related objects or components; models can be used for understanding and predicting the behavior of systems.

 

Structure and Function

  • The way an object is shaped or structured determines many of its properties and functions.

 


Unit 5 Chemical Change

(Week 17, 8 Weeks)

Wayne RESA MSS/NGSS aligned high school Chemistry Curriculum 2017; including 8 Units to be taught in a year long chemistry course.

 

Unit 5 focuses on chemical reactions. The storyline begins with students recognizing the signs of chemical change. Next, the law of conservation of mass is observed and practiced through the balancing of chemical equations. From these chemical equations, students will then be able to identify different types of reactions and predict the products of these reactions. The changes in energy that occur during chemical change and the relationship to collision theory is also examined. Finally, students will test and make predictions about factors that influence reaction rate and chemical equilibrium. Through careful observations and data analysis of chemical reactions made during lab investigations, students will discover how substances combine to make new products, and gain a better understanding of the processes that drive chemical change.

 




Upon completion of Theme 5 on chemical change, students will achieve the following I CAN statements:

 

L1: How do I determine if a chemical change has occurred?

I CAN recognize several signs that indicate chemical change has occurred.

 

L2: What happens to the mass during a chemical reaction?

I CAN state the law of conservation of mass.

I CAN verify experimentally that the total mass of the products is the same as the total mass of the reactants during a chemical reaction.

I CAN recognize that mass can move between the system and surroundings but is still always conserved

 

L3: How do I show the conservation of mass in a chemical equation?

I CAN balance chemical equations to show that atoms are conserved during a chemical reaction.

 

L4: Are there different types of reactions?

I CAN observe common patterns in the rearrangements of elements/ions in a chemical equation.

I CAN identify the different types of reactions

 

L5: How to predict the products of a chemical reaction?

I CAN apply my knowledge of reaction types together with patterns on the periodic table to predict the products of a chemical reaction.

I CAN plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of chemical change

I CAN draw conclusions based on evidence and effectively communicate the results of an investigation

 

L6: How is energy involved in chemical reactions?

I CAN describe how energy change is involved in breaking and making chemical bonds during a reaction.

I CAN construct energy graphs to show energy change during an exothermic and endothermic process

 

L7: Can I speed up or slow down a chemical reaction?

I CAN apply collision theory to explain how different factors can influence the rate of a reaction.

I CAN draw a particle model to show how temperature, concentration, surface area, and catalysts can affect reaction rate

I CAN plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect of a reaction rate variable

I CAN draw conclusions based on evidence and effectively communicate the results of an investigation

 

L8: Is a reaction reversible?

I CAN use a simulation and graph the results to understand how equilibrium is achieved

I CAN predict how various stresses added to a chemical system can cause a shift in chemical equilibrium

 


Grade Band Endpoints

By the end of grade 12 students should know…

 

PS1.B Chemical Reactions

  • Chemical processes and their rates can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules.

 

  • During chemical processes energy is stored or released as changes in total binding energy (i.e., the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules) which are matched by changes in kinetic energy.

 

  • In many situations, a dynamic and condition-dependent balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present.

 

  • The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.

 

  • Chemical processes and properties of materials underlie many important biological and geophysical phenomena.


Each lesson in a unit begins with a driving question. These questions could be posted on a driving question board or on a summary chart. The teacher should keep in mind that essential questions in a lesson should include student generated questions about the phenomenon.

 

L1: How do I determine if a chemical change has occurred?

 

L2: What happens to the mass during a chemical reaction?

 

L3: How do I show the conservation of mass in a chemical equation?

 

L4: Are there different types of reactions?

 

L5: How to predict the products of a chemical reaction?

 

L6: How is energy involved in chemical reactions?

 

L7: Can I speed up or slow down a chemical reaction

 

L8: Is a reaction reversible?


Disciplinary Core Ideas

Pieces of the DCI taken from the FRAMEWORK. The entire DCI is not unpacked, just those pieces related to this unit.

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

 

The periodic table places elements with similar chemical properties in columns.”

  • Elements with similar properties have same number of outer electrons
  • The number of valence electrons for an element is based on their position in the periodic table
  • The number of valence electrons largely determines the chemical properties of an element

 

“The repeating patterns of the periodic table reflect patterns of outer electron states.”

  • Chemical reactions involve a change in the position of outer electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms
  • Atoms will transfer electrons to/from another atom or share electrons with another atom
  • Often atoms react with other atoms to achieve an octet (8 electrons in outermost shell)
  • It is the number of electrons in the outermost shell (valence electrons) that is most important in determining how an atom will react with another atom

     

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

 

“The fact that atoms are conserved.”

  • The total mass of the reactants was the same as the total mass of the products.
  • Chemical equations must be balanced to obey the law of conservation of mass
  • A balanced equation has the same number of atoms of each element on the reactants side as the products side.
  • Coefficients are small whole numbers placed in front of the formulas in a skeleton equation in order to balance it

     

“Chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.”

  • Two general types of bonds form during chemical reactions: ionic and covalent
  • Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions.
  • In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion.
  • Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms. This bonding occurs primarily between nonmetals

 

“Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules.”

  • The energy transfer between system and surroundings occur by molecular collisions
  • Thermal transfer of energy occurs through random collisions of neighboring molecules
  • Reaction rate is expressed as the change in the amount of reactant or product per unit time
  • Collision theory is used to explain how reaction rates can differ.
  • Molecules that collide can break bonds and form new bonds, producing new molecules
  • The minimum energy that colliding particles must have in order to react is called activation energy
  • In general, as kinetic energy of colliding particles increases and the number of collisions increases, the reaction rate increases
  • There are 4 major factors that influence reaction rate. They are temperature, concentration, particle size, and catalysts.
  • An increase in temperature causes particles to move faster, increasing the frequency of collisions and the number of particles that reach the activation energy, thus forming products faster.
  • A higher concentration will allow for a greater frequency of collisions and also increase reaction rate
  • The smaller the particle size, the greater the surface area and thus an increase in frequency of collisions and reaction rate.
  • A catalyst can increase reaction rate by permitting reactions to proceed along a lower energy path

 

“…and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules.”

  • chemical changes is any change that results in the formation of new substances
  • The atoms of the reactants are only rearranged to form new products during a chemical reaction
  • There are 5 fundamental types of reactions (synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion)
  • Synthesis – 2 or more substances react to form a single new substance
  • Decomposition – a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products (most require energy)
  • Single replacement – a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound
  • Double replacement – a chemical change involving an exchange of positive ions between two compounds. Generally take place in aqueous solution and often produce a precipitate, a gas, or water
  • Combustion – a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen often producing energy in the form of heat and light. The reactants are usually hydrocarbons with oxygen

 

“The sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules that are matched by changes in kinetic energy.”

“A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart.”

  • There is energy stored in chemical bonds. It is called chemical potential energy.
  • The kinds of atoms and the arrangement of atoms determine the amount of chemical potential energy stored in a substance
  • During a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged into new groupings that have different relative potential energies
  • The change in potential energy is either a result of absorption of energy from the surroundings (endothermic) or the release of energy to the surroundings (exothermic)
  • Bond breaking is endothermic and bond making is exothermic
  • The total energy change of the chemical reaction system is matched by an equal but opposite change of energy in the surroundings
  • A reaction is overall exothermic if more energy is released when new bonds form in the products than is used when bonds in the reactants are broken
  • If it takes more energy to break bonds in the reactants than is released when new bonds form in the products then the reaction will be overall endothermic

 

“A dynamic and condition-dependent balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present.”

  • Some reactions are reversible This can be indicated with a double arrow in a chemical equation
  • A reversible reaction is one in which the conversion of reactants to products and the conversion of products to reactants occur at the same time
  • Chemical equilibrium is established when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal (dynamic equilibrium)
  • A shift in the equilibrium position can occur when stresses are added to the system
  • LeChatelier’s Principle states when a stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the system changes in a way that relieves the stress
  • The stresses that upset the equilibrium of a chemical system include changes in concentration of reactants or products, changes in temperature, and changes in pressure
  • Changing the concentration of a chemical will shift the equilibrium to the side that would reduce that change in concentration
  • Increasing the temperature causes the equilibrium of a reaction to shift in the direction that absorbs heat

Targeted Scientific Practices

 

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

  • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, and peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

Targeted Cross Cutting Concepts

 

Patterns

  • Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.

 

Energy and Matter

  • Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system.

     

  • The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved.

 

Stability and Change

  • Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.

Unit 6 Chemical Quantities

(Week 25, 6 Weeks)

Wayne RESA MSS/NGSS aligned high school Chemistry Curriculum 2017; including 8 Units to be taught in a year long chemistry course.

 

Unit 6 addresses the quantitative nature of chemical. Beginning with the mole and its usefulness in chemistry, the storyline leads to an understanding of mole ratios in empirical formulas and in a balanced chemical equations. Students will learn about stoichiometry and be challenged to design an airbag. This unit includes the calculation of energy in a chemical reaction and the calculation of concentrations of solutions in neutralization reactions after conducting titrations in the lab.




L1: What is a mole?

 

I CAN recognize and understand that when I have a mole of a substance it contains 6.02 x 10^23 particles and a mass that it equal to that found on the periodic table known as its molar mass.

 

L2A: How to use a mole to count in chemistry?

 

I CAN use the analogy of the Popcorn Counting Unit “PCU” and know that although the particle amount/ count is the same for every molar sample, the mass of 1 mole of any material is different due to the mass of the individual atom or compound.

 

L2B: How many moles are in everyday items?

 

I CAN use the knowledge that 1 mole is equal to 6.02 x 10^23 particles and the substance’s molar mass to convert from one unit to another using everyday atoms and compounds such as salt, sugar and water.

 

L3: Can I use this chemical counting system to determine chemical formulas?

 

I CAN use experimental data to determine the ratio of two elements that form a compound to determine the compound’s empirical formula because I understand that atoms are conserved in a chemical reaction.

 

L4: What is the meaning of a balanced chemical reaction?

 

I CAN use correct formulas within a balanced chemical reaction to show that mass of reactants and products are conserved in a chemical reaction.

 

L5: Can I use a balanced chemical equation to predict how much of a product will be produced?

 

I CAN use the given mass of a reactant to predict the mass of products made using the balanced chemical equation and stoichiometric ratios because of the law of conservation of mass.

 

L6: How is stoichiometry used to design an air bag?

 

I CAN use a balanced chemical reaction and stoichiometry to determine the correct amount of baking soda and vinegar to inflate my air bag to a safe volume.

 

L7: How do you quantify energy in a chemical reaction?

 

I CAN understand and use the information of temperature changes during a chemical reaction to know if the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. I can be use the understand that energy is required to break bonds and energy is released when a new bond is formed to determine if the overall reaction in endothermic or exothermic.

 

L8: What is a and how is it useful?

 

I CAN perform a titration and use the experimental data and my knowledge of mole to mole ratios to determine the concentration of an unknown acid.

 

 


Grade Band Endpoints

 

 

PS1.A Matter and Its Interactions

 

By the end of grade 8 students should have learned...

  • All substances are made from some 100 different types of atoms which combine in various ways.

By the end of grade 12 students should know...

  • Stable molecules has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart (breaking bonds is endothermic).

 

PS1.B Chemical Reactions

 

By the end of grade 8 students should have learned...

  • Atoms (mass) are conserved in a chemical reaction

By the end of grade 12 students should know...

  • Chemical reactions are predictable.

 

PS3.A Definitions of Energy

By the end of the grade 12 should know...

  • Total energy of a system is conserved

  • Energy is a quantitative property of a system

 

PS3.B Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

By the end of grade 12 should know...

  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can only be transported from one place to another

  • Mathematical expression is possible for chemical reactions to quantify energy

 


L1: What is a mole?

 

L2A: How to use a mole to count in chemistry?

 

L2B: How many moles are in everyday items?

 

L3: Can is this chemical counting system used to determine chemical formulas?

 

L4: What is the meaning of a balanced chemical reaction?

 

L5: Can a balanced chemical equation be used to predict how much of a product will be made?

 

L6: How is stoichiometry used to design an air bag?

L7: How is energy quantified in a chemical reaction?

L8: What is a titration and how is it useful?


 

Unpacking the DCIs

Pieces of the DCI taken from the FRAMEWORK. The entire DCI is not to be unpacked, just those pieces related to this unit.

PS1.A

 

“Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states. The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms.”

  • Will be addressed in Theme 5

 

“A stable molecule has less energy, by an amount known as the binding energy, than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart.”

  • An exothermic reaction has stronger bonds in the product producing more energy than was required to break the bonds of the reactants an endothermic reaction has stronger bond in the reactants required more energy to break the bonds than was produced in forming the bond of the product

 

PS1.B

“Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules…”

  • The new arrangement of bonds will predict if energy is stored or released

  • Leaving for another theme..rates of chemical processes

“with consequent changes in total binding energy (i.e., the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules) that are matched by changes in kinetic energy.”

  • The comparison of energy required to break bond versus the making of new bonds determines if a reaction is endothermic or exothermic

 

“The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.”

  • Law of conservation of matter is address in Theme 3

  • Chemical reactions represent mole to mole ratios that can be used to predict the amount of reactant needed and or the amount of product produced

PS3.A

 

“Chemical energy” generally is used to mean the energy that can be released or stored in chemical processes,

  • Chemical energy is converted to other types of energy such as thermal in chemical reactions

 

PS3.B

Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system.

  • Prior knowledge - address in theme 2

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems.

  • Prior knowledge - address in theme 2

PS3.D

Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms—for example, to thermal energy in the surrounding environment.

  • Energy into a system is equal to the energy out of the surroundings

 

Cross Cutting Concepts

 

 

Patterns

 

  • In grades 9-12, students observe patterns in systems at different scales and cite patterns as empirical evidence for causality in supporting their explanations of phenomena. They recognize classifications or explanations used at one scale may not be useful or need revision using a different scale; thus requiring improved investigations and experiments. They use mathematical representations to identify certain patterns and analyze patterns of performance in order to reengineer and improve a designed system.

 

Scale, Proportion and Quantity

 

  • In grades 9-12, students understand the significance of a phenomenon is dependent on the scale, proportion, and quantity at which it occurs. They recognize patterns observable at one scale may not be observable or exist at other scales, and some systems can only be studied indirectly as they are too small, too large, too fast, or too slow to observe directly. Students use orders of magnitude to understand how a model at one scale relates to a model at another scale. They use algebraic thinking to examine scientific data and predict the effect of a change in one variable on another (e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).

 

Energy and Matter

  • In grades 9-12, students can investigate or analyze a system by defining its boundaries and initial conditions, as well as its inputs and outputs. They can use models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) to simulate the flow of energy, matter, and interactions within and between systems at different scales. They can also use models and simulations to predict the behavior of a system, and recognize that these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in the models. They can also design systems to do specific tasks.

 


Targets Scientific Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

 

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9- 12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions

 

  • Apply techniques of algebra and functions to represent and solve scientific and engineering problems.

  • Apply ratios, rates, percentages, and unit conversions in the context of complicated measurement problems involving quantities with derived or compound unit

 


Unit 7 Periodic Table and Bonding

(Week 31, 5 Weeks)

Wayne RESA MSS/NGSS aligned high school Chemistry Curriculum 2017; including 8 Units to be taught in a year long chemistry course.

 

This unit brings together the topics of electron structure, organization of the Periodic Table, and bonding. Unit 7 begins with investigations in how and why the physical and chemical properties of compounds vary. As students dig deeper into the trends of the periodic table, they begin to develop an enduring understanding of how and why bonding occurs and how forces, such Coulomb's and intermolecular, effect the physical and chemical properties of matter.




L1: Why do some compounds melt at a different temperature than others?

I CAN collect data and use it to rank compounds according to relative melting point.

I CAN use similarities in compounds of known relative melting point to predict the relative melting point of substances.

L2: Why do elements combine in different ratios when forming a compound?

I CAN predict the charge of an ion based on the location of the atom on the Periodic Table.

I CAN use the ionic charge to predict the correct formula for an ionic compound.

L3: Why do electrons require different amounts of energy in order to be removed from an atom?

I CAN describe the relative amount of energy requires to remove an electron from an atom.

L4: Why do elements in the same group have common ion charges that are the same?

I CAN identify, describe and use the patterns of the Periodic Table.

L5: How do electrostatic attractions differ between ionic and covalent bonds?

I CAN describe the difference between ionic and covalent bonding.

I CAN revise my current bonding model to include new information.

L6: Why do atoms in the same period or in the same group have different sizes, ionization energies, and electronegativities?

I CAN identify, describe and use the trends of the Periodic Table.

L7: Why do some elements have different properties than others?

I CAN use experimental data to classify elements.

L8: Why does the dye mix in the water but not the oil?

I CAN cite evidence to support my rationale in explaining the results of the experiment.

L9: Why do some liquids evaporate faster than others?

I CAN collect data and use it to rank compounds according to relative rate of evaporation.

I CAN use similarities in compounds of known relative rate of evaporation to predict the relative rate of evaporation of substances.

L10 - How can we determine the identity of an ink sample?

I CAN use the results of this investigation to support the existence of intermolecular forces.​


Grade Band Endpoints

By the end of grade 12 students should know…

 

PS1.A Structure and Properties of Matter

 

  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.

 

  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns.

 

  • The repeating patterns of this table reflect patters of outer electron states.

 

PS2.B Types of Interactions

 

  • Such forces can be attractive or repulsive, depending on the relative sign of the electric charges involved.

 

  • Attraction and repulsion of electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter and the constant forces between material objects.

Each lesson in a unit begins with a driving question. These questions could be posted on a driving question board or on a summary chart. The teacher should keep in mind that essential questions in a lesson should include student generated questions about the phenomenon.

L1: Why do some compounds melt at a different temperature than others?

L2: Why do elements combine in different ratios when forming a compound?

L3: Why do electrons require different amounts of energy in order to be removed from an atom?

L4: Why do elements in the same group have common ion charges that are the same?

L5: How do electrostatic attractions differ between ionic and covalent bonds?

L6: Why do atoms in the same period or in the same group have different sizes, ionization energies, and electronegativities?

L7: Why do some elements have different properties than others?

L8: Why does the dye mix in the water but not the oil?

L9: Why do some liquids evaporate faster than others?

L10 - How can we determine the identity of an ink sample?

 


Disciplinary Core Ideas

Pieces of the DCI taken from the FRAMEWORK. The entire DCI is not unpacked, just those pieces related to this unit.

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

"Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons"

  • Atoms are made up of a small region called a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons

    • The nucleus is very small and dense. It contains most of the atom’s mass.

    • Isotopes of an element vary in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

    • The number of protons is represented by the atomic number and is used to identify each element.

"The repeating patterns of this table reflect patters of outer electron states."

  • Electron clouds surround the nucleus and comprise the majority of the volume of the atom.

    • Electrons are arranged in a predictable pattern, electron configurations.

    • Electron configurations help explain the reactivity and bond formation of an element.

    • Valence electrons are related to an element's position on the periodic table.

"The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns."

  • The periodic table depicts an arrangement of elements based upon atomic number.

    • The periodic table arranges elements with common chemical properties into vertical columns called groups.

    • The elements are arranged horizontally by atomic number.

    • An element’s position on the periodic table is related to its chemical properties, number of valence electrons, bond type, atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity.

"Such forces can be attractive or repulsive, depending on the relative sign of the electric charges involved..."

  • The charged particles of an atom cause electrostatic attractions and repulsions.

    • Attractions between positively-charged protons and negatively-charged electrons within an atom hold the atom together.

    • Electrons transferred from one atom/object to another causes a net charge and the potential for electrostatic attractions/repulsions.

"Attraction and repulsion of electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter and the constant forces between material objects."

  • Forces between atoms form the bonds of molecules.
  • Forces between molecules give rise to physical properties of substances.
  • Binding energy is the minimum amount of energy needed in order to take apart a molecule.

Targeted Scientific Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

  • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system. (HS-PS1-8)

  • Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system. (HS-PS1-1)

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

  • Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly. (HS-PS1-3)

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

  • Communicate scientific and technical information (e.g. about the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (including orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically). (HS-PS2-6)

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

  • Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations. (HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4)


Unit 8 Nuclear Chemistry

(Week 36, 2 Weeks)

Wayne RESA MSS/NGSS aligned high school Chemistry Curriculum 2017; including 8 Units to be taught in a year long chemistry course.

 

This unit addresses the NGSS that involve nuclear chemistry. Topics include type of nuclear radiation, 1/2 lives and nuclear energy.




L1: Does radiation affect me?

I CAN acknowledge that radiation is all around me, understand where it comes from, and that not all radiation is considered bad or harmful.

 

L2: What is a ½ life?

I CAN recognize that the ½ life of a substance varies from a few milliseconds to millions of years.

I CAN describe that the half life of a substance is the time in which ½ of the material radioactivity decays.

I CAN graph the amount of a substance vs time and know that the shape of the graph is very predictable for radioactive substances.

 

L3: What are the types of radiation?

I CAN explain that radioactivity is due to a change in the nucleus for alpha and beta decay and energy for a gamma decay.

I CAN write nuclear decay reactions involving alpha, beta and gamma that show the number of protons and neutrons do not change in a nuclear reaction.

 

L4: Can radiation be used for current and future energy needs?

I CAN describe the difference between fission and fusion including and how each can be used for energy.


Grade Band Endpoints

PS1.C Nuclear Reactions

By the end of grade 12 students should know...

  • Nuclear processes including fusion, fission, and radioactive decay of unstable nuclei

  • Total number of neutrons plus protons do not change in nuclear process

  • Spontaneous radioactive decay follows a characteristic exponential decay law


L1: Does radiation affect me?

 

L2: What is a ½ life?

 

L3: What are the types of radiation?

 

L4: Can radiation be used for energy?


Pieces of the DCI taken from the FRAMEWORK. The entire DCI is to unpacked, just those pieces related to this unit.

 

PS1.A

“Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons, neutrons, surrounded by electrons.”

  • considered prior knowledge to this unit

 

PS1.C

“The strong nuclear interaction provides the primary force that holds nuclei together and determines nuclear binding energies.”

  • nuclear process include fission, fusion and radioactive decay

  • processes release more energy per atom than chemical process

“Nuclear fusion is a process in which a collision of two small nuclei eventually results in the formation of a single more massive nucleus with greater net binding energy and hence a release of energy.”

  • need high temperature and pressure

  • occurs in the cores of stars

“Nuclear fission is a process in which a massive nucleus splits into two or more smaller nuclei, which fly apart at high energy.”

  • massive nucleus splits into two or more smaller nuclei

  • produced nuclei are often not stable and undergo radioactive decay such as alpha, beta and gamma decay

  • Due to high energy in nuclear transition they can cause damage to biological tissues

“Nuclear fission and radioactive decays limit the set of stable isotopes of elements and the size of the largest stable nucleus.”

  • long lived isotopes can be found in rocks and minerals

  • knowledge of nuclear lifetimes allow for radiometric dating

 

 


Targeted Scientific Practices

 

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

 

  • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system. the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

Wayne RESA