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OS/MAISA > Grade 10 > English Language Arts > English 10 (OS/MAISA)
Curriculum, OS/MAISA 
Course Description:
Unit
Overarching Questions and Enduring Understandings
Graphic Organizer
Unit Abstract
Unit Level Standards
Essential Questions
Content (Key Concepts)
Unit Assessment Tasks
Skills (Intellectual Processes)
Lesson Plan Sequence
Resources
XLaunching Writer's Notebook
(Week 1, 4 Weeks)

Overarching Questions

As a poet, where do I find my voice?

What matters to me, and what is important to express?

What are poets' basic and essential decisions?

 

Enduring Understandings

Poets live wide-awake lives, engaging the world and creating poems that express the stories, ideas, and observations that matter to them. They develop flexible patterns of thinking and a repertoire of strategies to make decisions throughout the writing process.

 

 


This unit establishes a writer’s notebook, a writing community, and classroom routines. These allow students to write about and explore poets' habits, strategies, attitudes, and techniques. Students ultimately plan, draft, revise, and edit a series of poems, preparing their work for an audience beyond the classroom. Students develop and use a writer’s notebook to collect entries, using exercises and strategies recommend by poets. Students read about and research those techniques used to shape and revise their poems. Additionally, students collaborate with classmates who are critical listeners and who offer written critiques. Students celebrate their taking a series of poems through the writing process.

 

 


While the information contained here is not related to Unit Level Standards, important information related to UDL is included for your reference.

 

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?

 

UDL is a research-based framework that focuses on proactive design and delivery of curriculum, instruction and assessment. UDL provides opportunities for every student to learn and show what they know, with high expectations for all learners.


Each student learns in a unique manner so a one-size-fits-all approach is not effective. UDL principles create options for how instruction is presented, how students express their ideas, and how teachers can engage students in their learning. (NY DOE)

 

© CAST, 2013

 


1. What do I observe about the world I live in?

2. What insights about my world can I give voice to?

3. How can I use poetry to touch or influence readers?

4. What basic decisions used by contemporary poets will help me connect to a reader?


connotation

denotation

figurative language

image

line

line breaks

memory

non-judgmental response

observation

stanza

white space


Mid-Unit Assessment Task:

What habits, strategies, and attitudes should one have in order to view oneself as a writer? After trying on the habits of poets, reread your writers’ notebooks and identify two habits, strategies, and/or attitudes that improved your living like a poet. Select a single entry that best demonstrates your choices. Explain how the use of these habits, strategies, and/or attitudes changed the way you think about writing or your identity as a writer.

 

Post-Unit Assessment Task:

How does a poet define a writing life? How does creating a writing life also create poems? After reading poems and experimenting with the habits, strategies, and attitudes of poets, write a series of poems that demonstrates the use of the universal and unique techniques used by poets who write for publication. Revise and edit early poems to meet a publishing standard. Write a reflection that examines the ways your writing has been impacted by experimenting and developing poems for publication. Submit poems for publication.


Developing a repertoire of cognitive and meta-cognitive skills and strategies for inquiry and decision-making.

Engaging in collaborative partnerships to maximize individual and collective learning.

Experiencing activities, in order to use thinking skills and strategies to increase self-initiation, decision-making, independence, and responsibility.

Observing, experimenting, planning, and implementing a plan, in order to become aware of the nature of thinking, as well as attitudes that effect change and develop the voice of a writer.

 

 

 

 


Print Resources

Christensen, Linda. Reading, Writing and Rising Up: Teaching about Social Justice and the Power of the Written Word. Milwaukee: Rethinking Schools. 2000. Print.

 

Friend, David and the Editors of LIFE [Edited by]. More Reflections on The Meaning of Life. Boston: Little Brown. 1992. Print.

 

Poetry by the following:

Billy Collins, Stephen Dunn, Rita Dove, Marie Howe, Philip Levine, Robert Frost, William Carlos Williams, Langston Hughes, William Stafford, Claudia Emerson, Mary Oliver, Louise Güluck, Billy Collins, Ted Kooser, Galway Kinell, Pablo Neruda.

 

“Valentine for Ernst Mann” by Naomi Shihab Nye

 

“Where I’m From” by George Ella Lyon

 

“Theme for English B” by Langston Hughes

 

“The Journey, “ “Wild Geese,” or “The Summer Day” by Mary Oliver

 

“Love after Love” by Derek Walcott

 

“Blackberry Eating” by Galway Kinnell

 

“Black Snake” by Mary Oliver

 

“Rain” by Naomi Shihab Nye

 

“To a Poor Old Woman,” or “The Red Wheelbarrow” by William Carlos Williams

 

“Laughing Boy” by Richard Wright

 

“Shooting” by Raymond Carver

 

“Rosa” by Rita Dove

 

Web Resources

http://www.poets.org

 

Poem a day: http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem-day

 

Teen Ink, a teen literary magazine: http://www.teenink.com

 

Poetry 180 by Billy Collins: http://www.loc.gov/poetry/180/


XIndependent Reading
(Week 5, 5 Weeks)

Overarching Questions

Do you have a reading life?

What is your reading identity and how have you changed your reading identity?

What does each genre offer a reader and what are the limitations of each genre?

How do fiction and nonfiction intersect?

How can reading change my life?

How can I participate and positively contribute to a discussion about a book or nonfiction text?

 

Enduring Understandings

Independent readers build a repertoire of reading habits and strategies to engage with the ideas and meanings in autobiography, biography, and memoir texts. They develop an understanding of how the texts work to express the central ideas developed across a text. In personal reading and peer conversations, they build their understanding of how autobiography, biography, and memoir texts are written. At the same time, they build an understanding of the ideas and evidence the writer uses to inform or persuade a reader.


In this unit, students select from a range of autobiography, biography, and memoir texts that encompass a variety of topics, central ideas, and arguments familiar and unfamiliar to the students. As in previous Independent reading units, this unit continues to promote basic reading goals: 1) develop students’ fluency and stamina by connecting them to the style and structure of a single text and other texts in a genre; 2) increase reading volume by choosing longer or more complex texts; 3) set goals to broaden and explore new genres or authors to assure continuous growth. In addition, the unit is designed to stretch or extend readers’ engagement with texts into a new genre that may be less familiar to some readers. Students have the opportunity to develop preferences for texts and authors in this genre. Students keep readers’ notebooks in which they monitor their reading progress, collect central ideas and arguments, as well as track evidence to support claims they are making about the author’s purpose. Students identify, analyze, and evaluate elements and structures typical of autobiography, biography, and memoir. They meet in small groups to predict and develop theories about the author’s craft and structural decisions, as well as purpose.


While the information contained here is not related to Unit Level Standards, important information related to UDL is included for your reference.

 

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?

 

UDL is a research-based framework that focuses on proactive design and delivery of curriculum, instruction and assessment. UDL provides opportunities for every student to learn and show what they know, with high expectations for all learners.


Each student learns in a unique manner so a one-size-fits-all approach is not effective. UDL principles create options for how instruction is presented, how students express their ideas, and how teachers can engage students in their learning. (NY DOE)

 

© CAST, 2013

 


  1. What reading and thinking habits do I have or will I learn by stretching or extending my reading in autobiography, biography, or memoir?
  2. What strategies and processes do I use to engage in reading to explore central ideas?
  3. What are the basic elements and structures of autobiography, biography, and memoir? How are they the same ? How are they unique?
  4. How can I use knowledge about these elements and structures to enable me to engage in increasingly complex texts to identify an author’s multiple purposes in a text?

 


autobiography

biography

central idea

genre

memoir

reader identity

textual evidence

theme


Student Work Artifacts - see below

 

Pre-Unit Assessment Task

What preferences do I have when reading independently and how will I stretch or extend my reading habits while reading autobiography, biography, or memoir? After mapping your reading preferences and sampling a range of texts, write a reflective paragraph that states if this unit will stretch or extend your reading habits. Predict several ways you might change as a reader by reading and studying this genre.

 

Mid-Unit Assessment Task

How has your reading, identity as a reader, or preferences for reading changed? Review your reader’s notebook, the goals you set before beginning the unit and goals you set during the unit. Reflect on this review to identify one way you have grown as a reader. Write a reflective paragraph that states how you have changed. Provide specific evidence from your notebook and the text you are reading to explain how and why this change occurred.

 

Post-Unit Assessment Task

What insights are you making as you connect to the author’s style and the structures of autobiography, biography, or memoir? After reading part or all of one text, review the connections, theories, and discussion topics you have tracked and recorded in your reader’s notebook. Identify a single insight you have gained that might impact the way you read, the way you see the central ideas in the text, or the way you interact with others. Write 2-3 paragraphs to state the insight, explain how the author connects details across the text to promote that central idea, and explain how the author uses a single element or structure of autobiography, biography, or memoir to establish the insight.

 

Student Work Artifacts- see below


Analyzing different genres to identify strengths and limitations

Analyzing evidence to infer central ideas

Connecting evidence across a text

Identifying a change in reader identity


Print Resources

Allington, Richard. What Really Matters to Struggling Readers: Research-Based Practices Across the Curriculum. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000. Print.

 

Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: Writing, Reading, and Learning with Adolescents. Portsmouth: Heinemann.1987. Print

 

Cullinan, Bernice. “Independent Reading and School Achievement.” American Association of School Librarians.

 

Darling-Hammond, Linda. Powerful Learning: What We Know About Teaching For Understanding. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008. Print.

 

Hillenbrand, Laura. Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption. New York: Random House, 2010. Print

 

Latta Kirby, Dawn and Dan Kirby. New Directions in Teaching Memoir: A Studio Workshop Approach. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2007. Print

 

Ritchart, Ron, Mark Church, and Karin Morrison. Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for all Learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011. Print.

 

Web Resources

Lesesne, Teri. Reading Ladders: Leading Students From Where They Are to Where We'd Like Them to Be. Accessed online, May 8, 2014. http://lesesneseminar.pbworks.com/w/page/16450439/FrontPage

 

Lists of memoirs and autobiographies:

 

http://www.goodreads.com/list/show/281.Best_Memoir_Biography_Autobiography

 

http://www.amazon.com/Best-Sellers-Books-Biographies/zgbs/books/2

 

http://www.squidoo.com/memoir-examples#module137889771

 

http://cocopreme.hubpages.com/hub/TheGenreofAutobiography


XBasics of Argumentation
(Week 11, 4 Weeks)

Overarching Questions

Can film make an impact on a person’s view of a social issue?

What social issues do filmmakers focus on?

Why should anyone care about these social issues?

 

Enduring Understandings

Critical readers develop skills to read the world and the world of texts [film, film reviews, and informational texts] with a critical lens. They understand even texts that are generally created for entertainment can carry important messages and present powerful arguments. Film is a text that can both entertain and persuade. Films can be read on multiple levels and critical readers of film develop strategies to crack the code, make connections and inferences, recognize purpose and audience, and recognize that films are not neutral and intend to influence people.


Students develop a stance/claim and a line of reasoning as they view, write about and discuss how characters and events portray social issues in a film. They notice how the screenplay writer, director and actors expose multiple points of view. As students explore the multiple stances/claims portrayed in the film, they will develop a stance/claim (claim) and counterclaims, identify evidence and establish clear relationships among the claims. This critical viewing and thinking work will culminate in an argumentative essay in which they evaluate the film based on a line of reasoning.


While the information contained here is not related to Unit Level Standards, important information related to UDL is included for your reference.

 

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?

 

UDL is a research-based framework that focuses on proactive design and delivery of curriculum, instruction and assessment. UDL provides opportunities for every student to learn and show what they know, with high expectations for all learners.


Each student learns in a unique manner so a one-size-fits-all approach is not effective. UDL principles create options for how instruction is presented, how students express their ideas, and how teachers can engage students in their learning. (NY DOE)

 

© CAST, 2013

 


  1. What methods do films use to expose and portray various claims on a social issue?
  2. What kinds of social issues seem to be most often portrayed in film?
  3. Do films impact an individual or society?
  4. Are films effective in the exposure or portrayal of a social issue?

audience

context

purpose

 


Pre-Unit Assessment Task

Can film make an impact on a person’s view of a social issue? After reflecting on films that have persuaded or influenced you to think or act in a specific way, write 2-3 paragraphs that discuss the social issue in the film, state the impact the film made on the way your think about or act when faced with the social issue, and explain how the filmmaker, the actors, or the story influenced you.

 

 

Mid-Unit Assessment Task

What is the social issue being exposed in this film? Why should anyone care about this social issue? After viewing My Sister’s Keeper [or other film] research films that are currently in theaters. Which of these films intentionally expose a social issue. Select one film that seems to expose a social issue and view it in order to identify the claim and counterclaims made in the film about the issue. Write 2-3 paragraphs that state the claim and counterclaim the film exposes and evaluates how effectively the filmmaker, actors, or story influenced your thinking or actions around the issue.

 

Post-Unit Assessment Task

How effective are films that intentionally focus on a social issue? After viewing My Sister’s Keeper (or other film) and reading related texts, write a film review that discusses one social issue exposed in the film and evaluates how effectively the characters and events deal with this social issue. Be sure to support your position with evidence from the texts.

 

 


Becoming aware, through explicit emphasis on intellectual processes, of the nature of thinking and one's mental capability to control attitudes.

Developing a repertoire of cognitive and meta cognitive skills and strategies for problem solving, decision making, and inquiry.

Engaging in authentic learning experiences to maximize learning.

Using thinking skills, through numerous experiential activities, to increase independence and responsibility.

 

 


Print Resources

Allison, Jay and Dan Gediman (edited by). This I Believe II: More Personal Philosophies of Remarkable Men and Women. New York: Henry Holt. 2009. Print.

 

Atwan, Robert. America Now: Short Readings from Recent Periodicals. Boston: Bedfor/St. Martins. 2007. Print

 

Bailey, Rick and Denstaedt, Linda. Going Places

 

Graff, Gerald and Cathy Birkenstein. They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. New York: W W Norton & Company. 2009. Print.

 

Lunsford, Andrea A., John J Ruszkiewicz. Everything’s an Argument. 5th Ed. Bedford/ St Martin’s. Print

 

Rex, Lesley A., Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth, and Engel, Steven. “Applying Toulmin: Teaching Logical Reasoning and Argumentative Writing”

 

Toulmin, Stephen E. The Uses of Argument. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2003. Print

 

Web Resources

Oakland Schools Teaching Research Writing Website: Skills Progression & Lessons http://www.osteachingresearchwriting.org/


XNarrative Reading
(Week 16, 4 Weeks)

Overarching Questions

Do heroes from around the world share the same universal questions? Those are:

Who am I? Where did I come from? Where will I go when I die? What is good and what is evil? What must I do about it? What will tomorrow be like? Where did yesterday go? Is there anybody else out there?”

 

Enduring Understandings

Writers from around the world and across historical time periods write about the universal theme of the hero's journey. They also use variations on a universal structure for the hero's journey. Readers and writers of literature use this knowledge to explore the various cultural and historical points of view on this universal theme.


Students read multiple narrative texts from world literature to compare how the narratives define a hero and express the hero’s journey. Students compare the narrative structures and approaches to this universal theme, noticing what is common, different (left out), and/or added to this universal structure and theme. By focusing on point of view, both narrative and cultural, students develop an inquiry to identify the central ideas and the impact of culture or historical context and point of view on the choices authors make as they tell a story about the hero’s journey. At the heart of this inquiry is a single question: Do heroes from around the world share the same universal questions? Those are:

Who am I? Where did I come from? Where will I go when I die? What is good and what is evil? What must I do about it? What will tomorrow be like? Where did yesterday go? Is there anybody else out there?”

 

 


While the information contained here is not related to Unit Level Standards, important information related to UDL is included for your reference.

 

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?

 

UDL is a research-based framework that focuses on proactive design and delivery of curriculum, instruction and assessment. UDL provides opportunities for every student to learn and show what they know, with high expectations for all learners.


Each student learns in a unique manner so a one-size-fits-all approach is not effective. UDL principles create options for how instruction is presented, how students express their ideas, and how teachers can engage students in their learning. (NY DOE)

 

© CAST, 2013

 


  1. What themes and narrative structures are universal?
  2. How does point of view alter a universal theme in literature?
  3. How does the culture of a country impact the point of view?
  4. How does the universal concept of a hero change from one world culture to another?
  5. What cultural values or views about heroism and gender roles impact the way authors write stories expressing the hero myth?

character development

cultural point of view

first-person point of view

frame story

hero archetypes

historical context

inference

literary point of view

literary genre and philosophy (existentialism, magical realism, surrealism)

narrative structures

scene

thematic development

third-person limited omniscient point of view

third-person omniscient point of view

universal themes

 

 


Pre-Unit Performance Task

After viewing an iconic American text (short video or short fiction) that portrays an American Hero, students write several paragraphs to define the classic American Hero and identify the universal questions explored during the hero’s journey. Students will support their definition with specific examples from the text.

 

Universal Questions about Heroes

"Who am I? Where did I come from? Where will I go when I die? What is good and what is evil? What must I do about it? What will tomorrow be like? Where did yesterday go? Is there anybody else out there?”

 

 

Mid-Unit Formative Assessment Task

Students complete reading log entries that prepare them for critically reading a novel or other short narrative(s) and writing a literary essay about the central idea and theme of the narrative(s).

 

 

Summative Assessment Task

The Hero’s Journey is a [narrative] pattern identified by the American scholar Joseph Campbell that appears in drama, storytelling, myth, religious ritual, and psychological development. It describes the typical adventure of the archetype known as The Hero, the person who goes out and achieves great deeds on behalf of the group, tribe, or civilization.”

 

Stories built on the model of the hero myth have an appeal that can be felt by everyone, because they spring from a universal source in the collective unconscious, and because they reflect universal concerns. They deal with the child-like but universal questions: Who am I? Where did I come from? Where will I go when I die? What is good and what is evil? What must I do about it? What will tomorrow be like? Where did yesterday go? Is there anybody else out there?” —Chris Vogler

 

Do heroes from around the world share the same child-like but universal questions? After reading world literature, collaboratively design a graphic or digital product that compares the ways stories from different countries use the universal structure and theme of the hero myth to explore universal human concerns. Identify which universal questions the authors explore and why they might emerge in literature from a specific country and culture.

 


Analyzing authors' decisions of multiple texts from around the world that use a universal theme and narrative structure

Analyzing point of view as it is impacted by culture and history

Analyzing authors' decisions and the impact of those decisions on meaning

Annotating the text

Categorizing the key details after reading

Connecting and synthesizing themes between texts

Identifying diction: connotation

Identifying figurative Language: imagery, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, alliteration, personification

Identifying key lines


Print Resources

Bartel, Julie and Holley, Pam. Annotated Book Lists for Every Teen Reader: The Best from the Experts at YALSA-BK. New York, New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc., 2011. Print.

 

Daniels, Harvey, and Steineke, Nancy. Mini-Lessons for Literature Circles. Portsmouth: Heinneman. 2004. Print.

 

Fredricksen, James, Wilhelm Jeffrey D, and Smith, Michael. So, What’s the Story?: Teaching Narrative to understand Ourselves, Others, and the World. Portsmouth: Heinemann. 2012. Print

 

Gallagher, Kelly. Deeper Reading: Comprehending Challenging Texts, 4—12. Portland: Stenhouse Publishers. NH 2004. Print.

 

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D. You Gotta Be the Book: Teaching Engaged and Reflective Reading with Adolescents. New York: Teachers College, 1997. Print.

 

Wilhelm, Jeffery, Baker, Tanya, and Hackett, Julie Dube. Strategic Reading: Getting Students to Lifelong Literacy 6-12. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook. 2001. Print

 

Wormeli, Rick. Summarization in any Subject: 50 Techniques to Improve Student Learning. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2005. Print.

 

Zemelman, Steven, Daniels, Harvey “Smokey”, Hyde, Arthur. Best Practice, Fourth Edition: Bringing Standards to Life in America’s Classrooms. Portsmouth: Heinemann. 2012. Print.

 


XLiterary Essay
(Week 21, 4 Weeks)

Overarching Questions:

What are the multiple ways that writers develop themes in a text?

What are the rhetorical modes writers use to analyze themes in literary essays?

 

​Enduring Understandings:

Literary essayists read for both plot and meaning. They track ideas, structures, literary devices, and effects across a novel to gather key details as they read. They create theories about the novel. They understand that there are multiple types of body paragraphs to support their claims. They make decisions about which types of paragraphs best support their claim. They reread to find deeper meaning in a novel.

 

 


In this unit, students select a theme after identifying multiple themes. Through deep study, students track the author’s decisions in characterization and literary devices to analyze how an author develops theme. Students write a variety of body paragraphs representing a range of rhetorical modes that are foundational for argumentative literary essays. After writing these paragraphs, students plan and write a multi-modal literary essay that illustrates and explains the answer to the question: How does an author develop a theme? Students take the argumentative essay through the writing process: drafting, revising and editing it.

 

 

 

 


While the information contained here is not related to Unit Level Standards, important information related to UDL is included for your reference.

 

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?

 

UDL is a research-based framework that focuses on proactive design and delivery of curriculum, instruction and assessment. UDL provides opportunities for every student to learn and show what they know, with high expectations for all learners.


Each student learns in a unique manner so a one-size-fits-all approach is not effective. UDL principles create options for how instruction is presented, how students express their ideas, and how teachers can engage students in their learning. (NY DOE)

 

© CAST, 2013

 

 

 


  1. In what ways does re-reading change our understanding of stories?
  2. How do we read stories on multiple levels?
  3. How do we find evidence to support a position?
  4. How do we provide support for a position in a body paragraph?
  5. How do readers find meaning beyond the plot?
  6. How do literary essayists support a claim?
  7. Which types of body paragraphs are most effective to support a claim?

body paragraph

conclusion/concluding paragraph

connected-example paragraph

evidence

extended-example paragraph

introductory paragraph

literary-device analysis paragraph

meaning

plot

position

summary paragraph

topic sentence

transitions


Pre-Unit Assessment Task

Use the post-unit assessment from the previous reading unit on literature. Use the assessment to gauge students’ abilities to analyze literary texts.

 

The prompt for that unit was: “The Hero’s Journey is a [narrative] pattern identified by the American scholar Joseph Campbell that appears in drama, storytelling, myth, religious ritual, and psychological development. It describes the typical adventure of the archetype known as The Hero, the person who goes out and achieves great deeds on behalf of the group, tribe, or civilization.”

 

Stories built on the model of the hero myth have an appeal that can be felt by everyone, because they spring from a universal source in the collective unconscious, and because they reflect universal concerns. They deal with the child-like but universal questions: Who am I? Where did I come from? Where will I go when I die? What is good and what is evil? What must I do about it? What will tomorrow be like? Where did yesterday go? Is there anybody else out there?” —Chris Vogler

 

Do heroes from around the world share the same child-like but universal questions? After reading world literature, collaboratively design a graphic or digital product that compares the ways stories from different countries use the universal structure and theme of the hero myth to explore universal human concerns. Identify which universal questions the authors explore and why they might emerge in literature from a specific country and culture.

 

Mid-Unit Formative Assessment Task

How do the main characters portray a theme in the novel? After reading a whole class novel or independent novel of your choice, write an extended-example paragraph and a connected-example paragraph that addresses the question and support your position with evidence from the texts.

 

Post-Unit Summative Assessment Task

How is a theme developed across a text using various literary techniques? After reading a whole class novel or independent novel of your choice, write an argumentative literary essay that addresses the question and support your position with evidence from the texts. Be sure to acknowledge alternate themes developed in the novel.

 

Metacognitive Write:

Students reflect back upon what they have learned by writing their essays. They think about how these skills might transfer to other learning experiences.

 

Student Work Artifacts - see below


Collecting evidence to support a claim

Determining the most appropriate type of body paragraph to support the claim

Evaluating evidence to determine which evidence provides the best support

Interpreting the meaning of the novel

Reading on multiple levels


Print Resources

Bailey, Richard, and Linda Denstaedt. Going Places. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009. Print.

 

Calkins, Lucy and Medea Mcevoy. Literary Essays: Writing About Reading. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2006. Print.

 

Hillocks, Jr, George. Teaching Argument Writing, Grades 6-12: Supporting Claims with Relevant Evidence and Clear Reasoning. Portsmouth, Heinemann. 2011. Print.

 

Jago, Carol. Come to Class: Lessons for High School Writers (Writing About Literature). Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2008. Print.

 

Kirszner, Laurie, Mandell, Stephen. Patterns for College Writing: A Rhetorical Reader and Guide. St. Martin's Press, 1992. Print.

 

Lunsford, Andrea, John Ruszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything’s an Argument. Bedford/St.Martin’s, 2010. Print.


XInformational Reading
(Week 25, 4 Weeks)

Overarching Questions

What is civil disobedience in a democratic society?

How do foundational U.S. documents influence contemporary actions, ideas, and values of writers and individuals in a democratic society?

 

Enduring Understandings

Readers of informational texts use a multi-draft reading approach to comprehend complex texts.

Readers of informational texts use a variety of reading, thinking and note-taking strategies to develop knowledge and become conversational about concepts and ideas.

Foundational U.S. documents provide background knowledge about democratic values that can serve as a lens to read and study current events and the writings of 20th- and 21st-century authors of literature, informational texts, and argumentative texts.


In the informational reading unit, students develop skills and strategies to engage in close reading of complex texts to develop analytical skills and strategies while moving from a variety of literature genres to a variety of nonfiction genres including foundational documents from American history, multi-media, and visual texts. As students read and analyze multiple texts, they build background knowledge about the concept of protest or civil disobedience in a democratic society; they analyze texts for bias and point of view; they explore the influence of U.S. foundational documents on writers and readers of literature and informational texts, and they extend this thinking as they research topics of personal interest. In addition, students self-monitor the skills, habits, strategies, and processes they use to set goals and reflect on their growth.


While the information contained here is not related to Unit Level Standards, important information related to UDL is included for your reference.

 

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?

 

UDL is a research-based framework that focuses on proactive design and delivery of curriculum, instruction and assessment. UDL provides opportunities for every student to learn and show what they know, with high expectations for all learners.


Each student learns in a unique manner so a one-size-fits-all approach is not effective. UDL principles create options for how instruction is presented, how students express their ideas, and how teachers can engage students in their learning. (NY DOE)

 

© CAST, 2013

 


  1. How do writers, artists and musicians engage in protest or civil disobedience?
  2. How can art be an act of protest or civil disobedience?
  3. How do informational writers, photographers, naturalists, and reporters engage in protest or civil disobedience?
  4. Where is the line between informing an audience and using publication as a platform for protesting political or social issues?
  5. How do foundational documents in American History preserve the rights of individuals to engage in protest or civil disobedience?
  6. What constitutional rights urge individuals to read, write and act to preserve the rights of all individuals?
  7. How do individuals, news agencies, artists, and political groups prepare and act within these constitutional rights?

annotation of a text

civil rights

cross-text connections

democratic values

historical connections

multi-draft reading

social issues


Pre-Unit Assessment Task

Task 1: Reflective Survey Of Reading Skills, Habits, Strategies, and Processes.

Students take a reflective survey to identify their strengths and areas of challenge. This information will establish a baseline of their knowledge about reading and their habits while reading informational texts. This survey is based on the three concepts from the Common Core State Standards:

  • Key Ideas and Details
  • Craft and Structure
  • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Students will set goals during the unit and write a reflection at the end of the unit.

 

Task 2: On-Demand Close Reading

Students will read and annotate a text pair to establish a baseline of their independent habits while reading informational texts. Students will use this pre-unit on-demand reading to set goals during the unit and to reflect on growth after the unit.

 

Mid-Unit Formative Assessment Task

Students apply their analysis skills as they read two texts that represent ideas about or examples of protest or civil disobedience. They write three paragraphs: a summary of each text and a paragraph of response that details their interaction with the texts.

 

Post-Unit Summative Assessment Task

What is the role of protest or civil disobedience in a democratic society?

1. After reading literature, informational texts, and foundational U.S. documents, research a topic of interest. Create an annotated bibliography of texts that informs a reader about protest or civil disobedience.

2. Write a paragraph that defines protest or civil disobedience and answers the question above. Support your discussion with evidence from texts on your bibliography.

3. Write a reflection that answers the following question: Over the course of this unit, how have I changed in my ability to 1) identify key details; 2)analyze craft and structure; and/or 3) integrate knowledge and ideas within or across texts?

 

[Students will use the prior knowledge gained in this unit to inform their work in the Informational Essay unit that follows. Students will be writing an informational essay to answer the following questions: What is the power of an individual in a democratic society? What is at stake if we forget our American ideals?]

 

Student Work Artifact - see below


Analyzing evidence to infer a central idea

Connecting details across a text in order to summarize

Evaluating bias in a text

Evaluating validity of a text

Identifying a change in reader identity


Print Resources

Ackley, Katherine, ed. Perspectives on Contemporary Issues: Readings Across Disciplines, 4th ed. Boston: Thomson

Wadsworth, 2006. Print.

 

Alexander, Jan and Tate, Marsha Ann. Web Wisdom: How to Evaluate and Create Information Quality on the Web. Mahwah,

New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999. Print.

 

Bartel, Julie and Holley, Pam. Annotated Book Lists for Every Teen Reader: The Best from the Experts at YALSA-BK. New York,

New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc., 2011. Print.

 

Gallagher, Kelly. Deeper Reading: Comprehending Challenging Texts, 4—12. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers, 2004.

Print.

 

Wilhelm, Jeffrey et. al. Get It Done! Writing and Analyzing Informational Texts to Make Things Happen. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2012. Print.

 

Wormeli, Rick. Summarization in any Subject: 50 Techniques to Improve Student Learning. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2005. Print.

 


XInformational Essay
(Week 29, 4 Weeks)

Overarching Questions:

What ideas presented in seminal U.S. documents define a democratic life? How does that definition inform the lives of citizens in the 21st Century?

How do I engage with ideas through interaction with texts and people to participate responsibly as an American citizen?

How can I inform myself about issues that impact the daily lives of Americans?

What is at stake if citizens in the 21st Century ignore or do not uphold democratic values?


Enduring Understandings:

Ideas embedded in seminal U.S. documents define a democratic life.

Contemporary society is influenced by seminal U.S. documents and the precepts embedded in them.

Researchers use methods to engage in primary, secondary, and multi-media research.

Researchers engage in collaborative research.

Researchers use methods to study a different historical context and apply precepts from seminal documents to that context.

Researchers choose from a variety of digital products to design, plan, and write a digital product based on multi-media research.


This unit is designed to follow the informational reading unit wherein students read paired, seminal U.S. documents and a range of literature with related themes and concepts. In this unit, students choose a topic to focus on that responds to the essential questions. What is a democratic life? What is at stake when we forget our American ideals? Groups are created based on student interest in an American ideal. Group members read a range of articles, interview a person(s) about the ideal, and develop an informed view about the cause(s) and effect(s) of forgetting that ideal. Students share valuable websites, article titles, and other resources. Students collaboratively create a digital product that expresses their informed view about the cause(s) and effect(s) of forgetting their chosen ideal.


While the information contained here is not related to Unit Level Standards, important information related to UDL is included for your reference.

 

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?

 

UDL is a research-based framework that focuses on proactive design and delivery of curriculum, instruction and assessment. UDL provides opportunities for every student to learn and show what they know, with high expectations for all learners.


Each student learns in a unique manner so a one-size-fits-all approach is not effective. UDL principles create options for how instruction is presented, how students express their ideas, and how teachers can engage students in their learning. (NY DOE)

 

© CAST, 2013

 


  1. How do I engage with ideas through interaction with texts and people to participate responsibly as an American citizen?
  2. How can I inform myself about issues that impact the daily lives of Americans?
  3. What is at stake if citizens in the 21st century ignore or do not uphold democratic values?

 


American ideals

civil liberties

collaborative research

core democratic values

democracy

democratic life

digital media and research

digital products (podcast, etc.)

freedom

historical context

historical heritage

multimedia

primary research

secondary research


Pre-Unit Assessment Task

Define the American Character using a six-slide PowerPoint presentation that uses graphics, images, sounds, and words to illustrate the definition.

Mid-Unit Formative Assessment Task

What is the power of an individual? After collaboratively researching a topic of personal interest that portrays the power of an individual in a democratic society, state an informed view of your topic. Write a definition paragraph(s) that explains the view and sets it in a current historical context. List a bibliography of readings that reflect the range of digital and print texts used to develop the view.

Post-Unit Summative Assessment Task

What is the power of an individual in a democratic society? What is at stake if Americans forget our American ideals and our American character? After reading seminal U.S. documents and related readings, do shared research to examine one aspect of these complex questions. Design, plan, write, and develop a digital product that identifies the impact and power of an individual in a democratic society. What conclusions can you draw? Support your discussion with evidence from secondary, primary research, and/or personal experience.


Developing and narrowing an inquiry

Identifying influences and implications

Researching to generate new information (primary research) about an inquiry

Researching to identify authorities and facts (secondary research) about an inquiry

Self-generating a timely topic connected to social precepts


Historical Resources

Lincoln: Gettysburg Address

 

Washington: Farewell Address

 

The Monroe Doctrine, stated in Monroe's State of the Union

 

Roosevelt: Four Freedom Speech

 

King: Letter from Birmingham Jail

 

Optional Literature

Fiction

Kate Chopin's story "The Storm"

 

John Steinbeck's story "Chrysanthemums"

 

Poems

Robert Frost's "Mending Wall"

 

Maya Angelou's "On the Pulse of Morning"

 

W.H. Auden's "The Unknown Citizen"

 

Donald Baker's "Formal Application"

 

Langston Hughes's "I, Too, Sing America"

 

Poets

Carl Sandburg, Stephen Crane, Walt Whitman,

 

Musicians

Bob Dylan; Metallica; John Lennon; Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young; U2

 

Web Resources

http://www.poetry.org

 

http://www.pewforum.org

 

http://www.brookings.edu

 

http://www.abc.com

 

http://www.nbc.com

 

http://www.cnn.com

 

http://www.npr.org

 

http://www.nytimes.com

 

http://www.usatoday.com

 

http://www.online.wsj.com

 

http://theweek.com/

 

http://www.newsweek.com/

 

http://www.time.com/

 

http://www.ted.com

 

Multi-media Presentation Resources

beyond bullet points: Using Microsoft PowerPoint to create presentations that inform, motivate, and inspire

http://www.beyondbulletpoints.com

Visual Teams: Graphic Tools for Commitment Innovation & High Performance by David Sibbet. Print.

The Digital Writing Workshop by Troy Hicks. Print.

Instructional Strategy Resources

Game Storming: A Playbook for Innovators, Rulebreakers, and Changemakers by Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo. Print.

 

Idea Mapping: How to Access Your Hidden Brain Power, Learn Faster, Remember More, and Achieve Success in Business by Jamie Nast. Print.

 

Oakland Schools Teaching Research Writing Website: Skills Progression & Lessons

http://www.osteachingresearchwriting.org/

 


XWriting the Argument
(Week 33, 4 Weeks)

Overarching Questions

How does a writer craft an editorial to support a claim(s) in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence?

What elements of argument are included in editorials?

How do I voice my opinion on an issue that has personal and community relevance in order to inform or elicit change?

 

Enduring Understandings

​Op-eds are a specific argumentative genre. Writers of this genre engage in critical thought on a range of subjects.

Writers of op-eds publish their arguments to engage in socially responsible commentary.

 

 

 

 

 


This unit engages students as both readers and writers. As readers, students study the elements of op-eds by annotating published op-eds for structure, tone, audience, claim, counterclaim, evidence, and warrant (reasons). Through strategies, such as talking to the text, students personally respond to op-eds. They identify the elements of an op-ed piece and how these elements work together to develop a line of reasoning. They summarize and analyze the explicit and implicit details in the text, thus evaluating the op-ed’s validity. Through consideration of diction and bias, students determine whether the warrant (reason) is assumed/implied or explicitly stated. As writers, students research issues of personal and community relevance to develop a stance and write an op-ed. Through original inquiry, students gather information from primary and secondary resources; they analyze and synthesize information to inform and support their claim(s) and counterclaim(s). They craft and revise the op-ed with appropriate word choice, style, and voice for an authentic audience and purpose.


While the information contained here is not related to Unit Level Standards, important information related to UDL is included for your reference.

 

What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)?

 

UDL is a research-based framework that focuses on proactive design and delivery of curriculum, instruction and assessment. UDL provides opportunities for every student to learn and show what they know, with high expectations for all learners.


Each student learns in a unique manner so a one-size-fits-all approach is not effective. UDL principles create options for how instruction is presented, how students express their ideas, and how teachers can engage students in their learning. (NY DOE)

 

© CAST, 2013

 


  1. What is the difference between an Op-Ed, column, and an editorial?
  2. What qualities are necessary for an argument to be an Op-Ed?
  3. Who usually is the writer of an Op-Ed?
  4. Who can write an Op-Ed?
  5. Why would someone write an Op-Ed?
  6. Who is the audience of the Op-Ed?
  7. What types of evidence are valid for an Op-Ed?
  8. What is the difference between primary and secondary research?
  9. What purpose is served by each type of evidence?
  10. How do you develop a strong voice in an Op-Ed?
  11. How does a writer's audience influence style, voice, diction, and tone?

 

 

 

 


audience

call to action

citation

claim

concluding statement

counterclaim

inference

lead

objective tone

organization

purpose

relevant, sufficient evidence

rhetorical strategies

valid reasoning

voice

writing process


Pre-Unit Assessment Task

Do you have opinions on local events, and/or social, political or economic issue(s) that impact your life? List three events or issues about which you have an opinion. Select the one you are most interested in and/or have the strongest opinion about. Write a brief statement of your opinion and a possible counter-opinion about this event or issue. Then list at least two reasons you have formed that opinion.

 

Mid-Unit Formative Assessment Tasks

Annotation Self-Assessment Task: What strategies or techniques do op-ed authors universally use? After studying a series of op-eds, in your literature circle group identify the common elements and evaluate which op-ed most effectively combines these elements to create a valid line of reasoning. Explain how the writer’s combination of elements is effective. Consider explicit and implied evidence, diction and bias, and audience awareness.

Project-Folder Self-Assessment Task: After writing and revising your Op-Ed, trace the diction to determine explicit and implied bias. Consider the effectiveness of this choice of diction and devise a revision plan to reduce bias and increase validity. In a brief reflection, state how the elements connect to argue your claim about this issue/problem/conflict in a logical way. Review the rubric and consider three areas in your reflection: 1) Focus; 2) Controlling Idea; and 3) Development.

 

Post-Unit Summative Assessment Task

After writing and revising your op-ed, trace the diction to determine explicit and implied bias. Consider the effectiveness of this choice of diction and devise a revision plan to reduce bias and increase validity. In a brief reflection, state how the elements connect to argue your claim about this issue/problem/conflict in a logical way. Review the rubric and consider three areas in your reflection: 1) Focus; 2) Controlling Idea; 3) Development.


Choosing a structure for your op-ed

Evaluating evidence

Investigating a topic

Narrowing or broadening the inquiry

Self-generating a relevant and timely topic for an op-ed

 


Print Resources

Rolnicki, Tom, et. al."Writing Editorials and Opinion Columns. Scholastic Journalism, 10th edition. 2001. Print.

 

Peterson, Linda H. The Norton Reader. New York: W.W. Norton. 2008. Print.

 

Graff, Gerald and Cathy Birkenstein. They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. New York: W W Norton & Company. 2009. Print.

 

Hillocks, Jr, George. Teaching Argument Writing, Grades 6-12: Supporting Claims with Relevant Evidence and Clear Reasoning. Portsmouth, Heinemann. 2011. Print.

 

Web Resources

Oakland Schools Teaching Research Writing Website: Skills Progression & Lessons http://www.osteachingresearchwriting.org/

 

The OpEd Project. Web. 3 Sept 2013.

http://www.theopedproject.org/

 

Daily OpEd. Web. 2012.

http://www.dailyoped.com/


Wayne RESA