Wayne RESA
Wayne RESA – SS > Grade 10 > Social Studies > Civics and Government
RESA, MAISA MC3 Units
Course Description:
Unit
Unit Abstract
Standards
Compelling Question
Supporting Questions
Content (Key Concepts)
Skills (Intellectual Processes)
Unit Assessment Tasks
Lesson Plan Sequence
Resources
XUnit 1: Foundations of American Government
(Week 1, 3 Weeks)

This unit introduces students to the fundamental values and constitutional principles of the American political system.  The responsibilities of citizens in our democratic republic are explored at the end of the unit.  Students begin their study of civics and government by exploring why people form governments.  They think about what life would be like without government, rules or laws. By considering the advantages of forming a civil society, students explore the purposes of government, role of citizens and institutions, and the distribution of political power.  Using ideas from influential political philosophers such as Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, students explore how each viewed the role of government.  Next, students examine historical and contemporary forms of government with a focus on the rights of citizens, role of citizens and institutions, and the distribution of political power.  In doing so, students explore the relationship between the authority of a centralized government and the rights of its citizens, as well as the distinction between limited and unlimited governments. Students then focus on the American form of government with an emphasis on the historical context and the ideas and principles in the Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution.  They analyze the compromises made to create the Constitution and examine the provisions the Founders included to delegate and limit the power of government. Next, students examine how the Constitution creates a democratic republic and the importance of the rule of law to our constitutional scheme.  They also investigate how ideas such as natural rights, social contract, popular sovereignty, limited government, and representative government are reflected in our foundational documents.  After examining some of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, students reflect on what is meant by a government “of the people, by the people, [and] for the people.”  In doing so, they consider the voluntary nature of citizenship in the United States, the means by which citizens effectuate change through civic engagement and the role civil disobedience has played in our society. The unit concludes with students identifying problems facing American citizens today and reflecting on how these issues are related to conflicting constitutional principles and/or fundamental values.  



How are both knowledge about American constitutional government and actions by citizens essential components of effective government?


  1. How have different views about human nature and the purposes of government resulted in different forms of government?
  2. How have ideas about government influenced constitutional principles and fundamental values in the United States?
  3. What is meant by a government "of the people, by the people, [and] for the people"?

authority

Bill of Rights

citizenship

civil disobedience

civil society

constitutional government

constitutional principles

enumerated powers

equality

federalism

governmental structures / forms of government

liberty

limited / unlimited government

natural rights

purposes of government

republic

rule of law

social contract

sovereignty

 


Cause and Effect

Classifying/Grouping

Compare and Contrast

Description

Identifying Perspectives



Equipment/Manipulative

Chart paper

 

Computers for students with Internet Access

 

Document Camera, Overhead Projector, or Computer Projector

 

Highlighters

 

Markers

 

Student Notebook or Journal for the Citizenship Notebook

 

Student Resource

“Amendments.” Constitution Guide. Justice Learning. 22 July 2009

 

*American Government & Politics. ThisNation.com. 2 October 2015 http://www.thisnation.com/

 

“Articles.” Constitution Guide. Justice Learning. 22 July 2009

 

Brookings Institute.2 October 2015 http://www.brookings.edu/

 

The Cato Institute. 2 October 2015 http://www.cato.org

 

Center for American Progress. 2 October 2015 http://www.americanprogress.org

 

“Civil Disobedience The History of the Concept.” Science Encyclopedia. 2 October 2015 http://science.jrank.org/pages/8660/Civil-Disobedience-History-Concept.html#ixzz0L9NCVZCH&D

 

Confederate States of America. Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union. Avalon Project at Yale Law School.2 October 2015 http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/csa/scarsec.htm

 

Declaration of Independence. Charters of Freedom. National Archives. 2 October 2015 http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration.html

 

Definitions and Notes. The World Factbook. US Central Intelligence Agency. 2 October 2015 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#2128

 

Democracy Glossary. Justice Learning. 22 July 2009

 

Facing Up to the Nation’s Finances. 22 July 2009

 

George Washington and Civic Virtue. Rediscovering George Washington. PBS. 2 October 2015

http://www.pbs.org/georgewashington/classroom/civic_virtue2.html

 

The Heritage Foundation. 2 October 2015 http://www.heritage.org/

 

Introductions: Guided Reading, The American Revolution. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 22 July 2009

 

Issues. Justice Learning. 2 October 2015 http://www.justicelearning.org/Issues.aspx

 

King, Jr., Martin Luther. “Letter From Birmingham Jail, April 16, 1963.” MLK Online. 2 October 2015

http://www.mlkonline.net/jail.html

 

Legal Immigration A to Z (101) How does it Work? Living in America. Reason.com.2 October 2015 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.reason.com/images/07cf533ddb1d06350cf1ddb5942ef5ad.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.living-in-america.biz/blog/immigration/legal-immigration-a-z-101-how-does-it-work/&h=1584&w=2448&sz=2334&tbnid=2IErAwzXRHi6LM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlegal%2Bimmigration&usg=__x3gJJ88eps6L8IMPa9yo8tSzKC8=&ei=SyFeSs7GHpGoMMqm8b8C&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=4&ct=image

 

“The Preamble.” Constitution Guide. Justice Learning. 22 July 2009

 

Primary Documents in American History. Library of Congress. American Memory Project. 2 October 2015 http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/help/constRedir.html

 

Public Agenda. 2 October 2015 http://www.publicagenda.org/

 

Types of Governments. CBBC Newsround. 2 October 2015 http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/find_out/guides/world/united_nations/types_of_government/newsid_2151000/2151570.stm

 

United States Constitution. Cornell Law School. Legal Information Institute.2 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.overview.html

 

We the People Student Book. Center for Civic Education. 2 October 2015 http://www.civiced.org/index.php?page=wtp_hs02_sb

 

Teacher Resource

Antifederalists vs. Federalists. AP US History. 2 October 2015 http://chaffeyaphistory.homestead.com/files/RatificationDebate.html

 

Beeman, Richard R. A Republic if You Can Keep it: Perspectives on the Constitution. Constitution Center. 22 July 2009

 

“Composing the Constitution” American History: Foundations of American Government. United Streaming. 2 October 2015

http://www.unitedstreaming.com

 

*The Constitution: That Delicate Balance. Annenberg Foundation. 1984. 2 October 2015 http://www.learner.org/resources/series72.html#program_descriptions

 

*Constitutional Topic: The Constitutional Convention. US Constitution Online. 2 October 2015 http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_ccon.html

 

Declaration of Independence. Teacher Annotation. Edsitement. National Endowment for the Humanities. 22 July 2009

 

*“An Expression of the American Mind”: Understanding the Declaration of Independence. National Endowment for the Humanities. 2 October 2015 http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=723#01

 

The Federalist Papers. Avalon Project at Yale Law School. 2 October 2015 http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/fed.asp

 

The Federalist Papers: No. 51. Avalon Project.Yale Law School. 2 October 2015 http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed51.asp

 

The Federalist Papers: No. 14. The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. 2 October 2015 http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed14.asp

 

“A Group of British Boys Is Stranded on a Deserted Island” Great Books: Lord of the Flies. United Streaming. 2 October 2015 http://search.discoveryeducation.com

 

Jean-Jacque Rousseau. The Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 2 October 2015 http://www.iep.utm.edu/r/rousseau.htm#H4

 

John Locke. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 2 October 2015 http://www.iep.utm.edu/l/locke.htm#Two%20Treatises%20of%20Government

 

“Key Constitutional Concepts.” Annenberg Foundation. 2 October 2015 http://sunnylandsclassroom.org/Asset.aspx?id=12

 

*Lesson Plan: The Declaration of Independence: From Rough Draft to Proclamation. Library of Congress. 2 October 2015http://myloc.gov/Education/LessonPlans/Pages/lessonplans/declaration/index.aspx

 

Lucas, Stephen E. Stylistic Artistry of the Declaration of Independence. National Archives. 2 October 2015 http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_style.html

 

*Madison Debates, May 31. The Avalon Project. 2 October 2015 http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/debates_531.asp

 

Maggs, Gregory E. “The Federalist Papers as Evidence of the Framers’ Original Intent.” A Concise Guide to the Federalist Papers. Boston University Law Review. 2 October 2015 http://www.bu.edu/law/central/jd/organizations/journals/bulr/documents/MAGGS.pdf

 

The Mayflower Compact. The Pilgrim Hall Museum. 2 October 2015 http://www.pilgrimhall.org/compcon.htm

 

Monk, Linda R. The Words We Live By. Your Annotated Guide to the Constitution. NY: Hyperion, 2003.

 

*Muchmore, Andrew. The English Bill of Rights and Its Influence on the United States Constitution. 2 October 2015 http://www.thegloriousrevolution.org/docs/english%20bill%20of%20rights.htm

 

Oakland Schools Teaching Research Writing Website: Skills Progression & Lessons http://www.osteachingresearchwriting.org/

 

“Philosopher Reading.” ESubjects.com. 2 October 2015 http://www.esubjects.com/curric/general/am_gov/unit_one/pdf/philosopher_reading.pdf

 

*Philosphers. Philosophy Resources on the Internet. 2 October 2015 http://www.epistemelinks.com/Main/MainPers.aspx

 

Plato. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2 October 2015 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato/

 

Plato’s Political Philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2 October 2015 http://www.iep.utm.edu/p/platopol.htm

 

The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli Study Guide. Gradesaver.com. 2 October 2015 http://www.gradesaver.com/the-prince/study-guide/short-summary/

 

*Shenkman, Rick. 5 Myths About Those Civic-Minded, Deeply Informed Voters. The Washington Post. 7 Sept. 2008. 2 October 2015 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/05/AR2008090502666.html?nav=most_emailed

 

Thomas Hobbes Political and Moral Philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2 October 2015 http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/hobmoral.htm

 

Twyman, Debbie and Craig Whitney. Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government. AP Government. 31 March 2009. 2 October 2015 http://www.twyman-whitney.com/apgovpol/readings/HobbesLockeMontesquieuandRousseauonGovernment.pdf

 

For Further Professional Knowledge

Bailyn, Bernard. To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders. New York: Knopf, 2003.

 

Barbour, Christine and Gerald C. Wright. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, The Essentials, 4th ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2008.

 

Cigler, Allan J. and Burdett A. Loomis. American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1995.

 

Ginsberg, Benjamin, Theodore J. Lowi and Margaret Weir. We the People: An Introduction to American Politics, 5th ed. NY: W.W. Norton, Co., 2004.

 

Greene, Jack P. The Intellectual Construction of America. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ of North Carolina Press, 1997.

 

Kernell, Samuel and Steven S. Smith. Principles and Practice of American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings, 3rd ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2006.

 

- - - and Gary C. Jacobson. 2006. The Logic of American Politics. CQ Press. 4th ed., Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2008.

 

O’Connor, Karen and Larry J. Sabato. Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009.

 

 

* Although resources denoted with an asterisk are not cited in the lessons of the unit, they are included here to provide meaningful options for teachers.

 

 


XUnit 2: Limited Government
(Week 4, 4 Weeks)

This unit focuses on how the United States Constitution creates a limited form of government by delegating and reserving powers among federal, state, and local governments and the people.  Students begin with the principle of enumerated powers and examine some of the specific powers delegated to the federal government.  In doing so, they consider how the Constitution separates, checks, and balances the power of the federal government.  By comparing enumerated, reserved, and concurrent powers of federal and state governments, they consider how a federal system of government serves the needs of a diverse citizenry. Students then consider the complicated nature of federalism in the American system of government. Through case studies they explore the tension between the federal and state governments with a specific focus on the Commerce Clause, the Elastic Clause, and the Tenth Amendment.  Students consider how the principles of enumerated powers and constitutional supremacy have resulted in different perspectives on limited government.  Turning their attention to state government, students explore relations among the states under Article IV in the Constitution. They study revenue sources and responsibilities of state government, and investigate some of the challenges facing the government of the state of Michigan. Students also learn how citizens can monitor and influence state and local governments through mechanisms of direct democracy and the power of popular sovereignty.  Next, students focus on local government and the variety of organizational structures they employ. They identify issues of concern in their community and create an action plan to address these problems. Students then examine how the Framers ensured that individual rights would not be trampled by government. They explore the role of the 14th Amendment in extending the Bill of Rights as a limit to state power.  Throughout the unit, students apply the principles of rule of law and limited government in considering how a federal system of government meets the changing needs of a diverse citizenry.

 



How are both knowledge about American constitutional government and actions by citizens essential components of effective government?


  1. How are power and responsibility distributed, shared, and limited in the American constitutional system of government?
  2. How does federalism serve the needs of a diverse citizenry?
  3. How can citizens influence state or local public policy or governmental action?

Bill of Rights

checks and balances

citizenship

concurrent powers

constitutional supremacy

enumerated powers

federalism

flexibility of government

limited government

local government

popular sovereignty

reserved powers

rule of law

separation of powers

strict vs. loose constructionist

 


Classifying/Grouping

Description

Identifying Perspectives

Issue Analysis

Problem Solving

Research



Equipment/Manipulative

Card Stock paper

 

Chart paper

 

Markers

 

Student Resource

About Counties. National Association of Counties. 6 October 2015. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=About_Counties

 

*Constitutional Rights Foundation. 6 October 2015. http://www.crf-usa.org/

 

The Constitution of the United States, Analysis and Interpretation. United States Government Printing Office. 22 August 2009.

 

*Inside Politics. CNN/Time. 6 October 2015. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS

 

*Library of Congress. 6 October 2015. http://thomas.loc.gov

 

McCulloch v. Maryland, Federalism Activity. Landmark Cases. Supreme Court Historical Society and Street Law. 2002. 6 October 2015. http://www.landmarkcases.org/mcculloch/federalismactivitiy.html

 

*The Official State of Michigan Web Site. 6 October 2015. http://www.michigan.gov/som

 

Overview of County Government. National Association of Counties. 22 August 2009.

 

Yahoo Directory: Local Newspapers. Yahoo. 22 August 2009.

 

Teacher Resource

Amar, Akhil Reed. 2002. “2000 Daniel J. Meador Lecture: Hugo Black and the Hall of Fame." Alabama Law Review, 1221. 6 October 2015. http://law.jrank.org/pages/7578/Incorporation-Doctrine.html#ixzz0I3AyujWc&D

 

Barth, Alan, The Roots of Limited Government. Feb. 2001. 22 August 2009.

 

Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: The Commerce Clause Limitations on State Regulations. University of Missouri-Kansas Law School. 6 October 2015. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/statecommerce.htm

 

Free Speech and the State Action Requirement. Exploring Constitutional Conflcts. University of Missouri-Kansas Law School. 6 October 2015. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/firstamstateaction.htm

 

Garcia v. San Antonio Metro Transit Authority. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015. http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1983/1983_82_1913

 

Gibbons v. Ogden. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015. http://www.oyez.org/cases/1792-1850/1824/1824_0/

 

Gonzales v. Raich. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015. http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2004/2004_03_1454

 

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015. http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1964/1964_515

 

Helpful Handouts. The Initiative & Referendum Institute. University of Southern California. 6 October 2015. http://www.iandrinstitute.org/Quick%20Fact-Handouts.htm

 

The Incorporation Debate. Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. University of Missouri-Kansas Law School. 6 October 2015. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/conlaw/incorp.htm

 

Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Supreme Court Historical Society. Street Law. 2002. 6 October 2015.

http://www.landmarkcases.org

 

Learn About Counties. National Association of Counties. 6 October 2015. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Learn_About_Counties&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=29809

 

Letter of Governor Granholm. 12 Feb. 2009. Office of the State Budget. State of Michigan. 6 October 2015. http://www.michigan.gov/budget

 

Lopez v. Gonzales. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015. http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2006/2006_05_547

 

McCulloch v. Maryland. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015. http://www.oyez.org/cases/1792-1850/1819/1819_0

 

Michigan County Directory. Michigan Start Pages, LLC. 22 August 2009.

 

Michigan State and Local Government. State and Local Government on the Net. 6 October 2015. http://www.statelocalgov.net/state-mi.cfm

 

Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia. Law Library – American Law and Legal Information. 6 October 2015. http://law.jrank.org/pages/13347/Morgan-v-Commonwealth-Virginia.html

 

Oakland Schools Teaching Research Writing Website: Skills Progression & Lessons http://www.osteachingresearchwriting.org/

 

Pope, R.R. Rule of Law. Political Science 101. Illinois State University. 22 August 2009.

 

Project Citizen. Center for Civic Education. 6 October 2015. http://www.civiced.org/index.php?page=introduction

 

Racial Discrimination and the State Action Requirement. Exploring Constitutional Conflcts. University of Missouri-Kansas Law School. 6 October 2015. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/stateaction.htm

 

State Comparisons. Federation of Tax Administrators. 6 October 2015. http://www.taxadmin.org/fta/rate/tax_stru.html

 

State Legislative Back to School Coordinators Roster. National Conference of State Legislatures. 6 October 2015. http://www.ncsl.org/LegislaturesElections/LegislatorsBacktoSchoolProgram/StateCoordinatorsRoster/tabid/15787/Default.aspx

 

Stearns, Maxwell. “The New Commerce Clause Doctrine in the Game Theoretical Perspective.” University of Maryland Law School. 6 October 2015. http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/fac_pubs/51/

 

United States v. Lopez. Further Readings. Law Library – American Law and Legal Information. 6 October 2015. http://law.jrank.org/pages/12812/United-States-v-Lopez.html

 

“What are ballot proposition, initiatives, and referendums?” The Initiative and Referendum Institute. University of Southern California.6 October 2015. http://www.iandrinstitute.org/Quick%20Fact%20-%20What%20is%20I&R.htm

 

Wickard v. Filburn. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015. http://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1949/1942/1942_59

 

For Further Professional Knowledge

Barbour, Christine and Gerald C. Wright. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, The Essentials, 4th ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2008.

Cigler, Allan J. and Burdett A. Loomis. American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1995.Ginsberg, Benjamin, Theodore J. Lowi and Margaret Weir. We the People: An Introduction to American Politics, 5th ed. NY: W.W. Norton, Co., 2004.

 

Greene, Jack P. The Intellectual Construction of America. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ of North Carolina Press, 1997.

 

Kernell, Samuel and Steven S. Smith. Principles and Practice of American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings, 3rd ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2006.

 

- - - and Gary C. Jacobson. 2006. The Logic of American Politics. CQ Press. 4th ed., Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2008.

 

O’Connor, Karen and Larry J. Sabato. Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009.

 

Peters, Ellen Ash. Role of State Constitutions in Our Federal System. 22 August 2009.

 

 


XUnit 3: The Legislative Branch and Politics
(Week 8, 5 Weeks)

This unit focuses on the legislative branch of government and politics.  Students begin with a review of the principles of enumerated powers, popular sovereignty, checks and balances, separation of powers, republicanism, and bicameralism.  They explore how these principles are reflected in the provisions of Article I of the U.S. Constitution.  After examining the origins of political parties in the United States; students assess the purposes of politics and the role of political parties.  They learn about some of the distinctions between conservatives and liberals and explore how the political spectrum reflects a multitude of positions on a variety of issues.  They investigate how the legislative and political processes reflect this diversity of opinion including debates about how to best fulfill the purposes of government.  Students explore how political parties differ in how they view legislation and how these differences influence the legislative process.  After defining their own political identity, students participate in a legislative simulation.  They identify current issues of concern and attempt to resolve them through the drafting of public policy.  After researching a selected public issue and gathering a sampling of public opinion, students draft legislation to address the issue. They learn about the importance of party leadership and committee work as they try to move legislation through both houses of Congress.  Through debates and compromise, students work to resolve the simulation issue.  They then use a case study of the Family Medical Leave Act to explore how Congress works. Students examine how an issue gets on the public agenda and how it may ultimately be addressed through public policy.  In doing so, students examine the role of conflict and compromise in the legislative process.  They also analyze the role of public opinion, the media, interest groups, and lobbyists in the legislative process.  Throughout the unit, students consider the purposes of politics, why people engage in the political process, and what the political process can achieve.



How are both knowledge about American constitutional government and actions by citizens' essential components of effective government?


  1. How are laws made?
  2. How do pressures from individuals, interest groups, the media, political party leadership, and public opinion affect public policy?
  3. How effective is the legislative process in addressing the needs of the nation's citizens?

bicameralism

checks and balances

enumerated powers

leadership

legislative process

lobbying  

political parties

politics

popular sovereignty

public agenda

public opinion

public policy

republicanism

role of the media

separation of powers

substantive discourse/ deliberative public discussions 

 


Classifying/Grouping

Description

Identifying Perspectives

Issue Analysis

Problem Solving

Research



Equipment/Manipulative

Card Stock paper

 

Chart paper

 

Computer with Internet access

 

Markers

 

Overhead projector or document camera

 

Student Resource

Active Legislation 111th Congress (2009-2010). United States Senate. 6 October 2015. http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/legislative/b_three_sections_with_teasers/active_leg_page.htm

 

*Bill Search. Congress.org. CQ-Roll Call Group. 6 October 2015. http://www.congress.org/congressorg/issuesaction/bill/

 

Brookings Institute. 6 October 2015. http://www.brookings.edu/

 

The Cato Institute. 6 October 2015. http://www.cato.org

 

Center for American Progress. 6 October 2015. http://www.americanprogress.org

 

Congressional Bills Main Page, GPO Access. 22 May 2010.

 

The Constitution of the United States, Analysis and Interpretation. United States Government Printing Office. 22 May 2010.

 

Current Legislation. Key Bills in Congress. Roll Call/Congress.org. 22 May 2010.

 

The Democratic Party. 6 October 2015. http://www.democrats.org

 

Figure 12.4 - How a Bill Becomes a Law. La Quinta High School. 22 May 2010.

 

Government 101: How a Bill Becomes a Law. Project Vote Smart.6 October 2015. http://www.votesmart.org/resource_govt101_02.php

 

The Heritage Foundation. 6 October 2015. http://www.heritage.org/

 

How a Bill Becomes a Law. CQ Roll Call Group. 6 October 2015. http://corporate.cq.com/user-assets/Images/congress101/how-a-bill-becomes-law.jpg

 

I’m Just a Bill. School House Rock. 22 May 2010.

 

*Inside Politics. CNN/Time. 6 October 2015. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS

 

Klein, Ezra “Government by Loophole.” Newsweek. 5 March 2010. 22 May 2010.

 

Legislative Activities. Office of the Clerk, U. S. House of Representatives. 6 October 2015. http://clerk.house.gov/floorsummary/floor.html

 

Legislative Archive. United States House of Representatives. 22 May 2010.

 

Nagourney, Adam and Megan Thee-Brenan. “New Poll Finds Growing Unease on Health Plan.” New York Times. July 30, 2009: 6 October 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/30/us/politics/30poll.html

 

National Issues Forum.6 October 2015. http://www.nifi.org/

 

News Batch. 6 October 2015. http://www.newsbatch.com

 

*Political Bulletin. US News and World Report. 22 May 2010.

 

*Political Cartoons. 6 October 2015. http://www.politicalcartoons.com

 

Politico.6 October 2015. http://www.politico.com

 

PolitiFact.com.6 October 2015. http://www.politifact.com

 

Polling Report.6 October 2015. http://www.pollingreport.com/

 

Preamble to the U.S. Constitution. U.S. Constitution Online. 6 October 2015. http://www.usconstitution.net/xconst_preamble.html

 

ProCon of Controversial Issues. ProCon.org. 6 October 2015. http://www.procon.org/

 

Public Agenda.6 October 2015. http://www.publicagenda.org/

 

*Real Clear Politics. 6 October 2015. http://www.realclearpolitics.com

 

The Republican National Committee. 6 October 2015. http://www.gop.com/

 

Rhee, Foon. “Measuring, influencing public opinion on health care.” Boston Globe. 16 Nov. 2009. 22 May 2010.

 

The Role of Political Parties. America.gov. 22 May 2010.

 

Seelye, Katharine. “Competing Ads on Health Care Plan Swamp the Airwaves.” New York Times. 6 October 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/16/health/policy/16ads.html?scp=15&sq=health%20care%20reform%20public%20awareness&st=cse

 

*Teachers’ Curriculum Institute. Government Alive! Power, Politics, and You. Palo Alto, CA: TCI, 2009.

 

Thomas. The Library of Congress. 6 October 2015. http://thomas.loc.gov/

 

“Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: the Family Medical Leave Act as Retrenchment Policy.” The Review of Policy Research. 22 March 2003. 6 October 2015. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-2688511/Two-steps-forward-one-step.html

 

United States House of Representatives. 6 October 2015. http://www.house.gov/

 

United States Senate. 6 October 2015. http://www.senate.gov/

 

Teacher Resource

*Asher, Lauren J. and Donna R. Lenhoff. “Family and Medical Leave: Making Time for Family is Everybody’s Business.” Future of Children. 22 May 2010.

 

*“Bush May Veto Family Bill.” May 7, 1990. LA Times. 6 October 2015. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-05-07/news/mn-265_1_family-values

 

*“Bush Vetos Bill on Family Leave.” June 30 1990. New York Times. 6 October 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/06/30/us/bush-vetoes-bill-on-family-leave.html

 

*The Daily Show. Comedy Central. 6 October 2015. http://www.thedailyshow.com/

 

Daryl Cagle’s Professional Cartoonists Index. Cagle.com. 6 October 2015.

http://www.cagle.com

 

*The Dennis Miller Show. 6 October 2015. http://www.dennismillerradio.com/

 

Directory of US Political Parties. Ron Gunzburger’s Politics 1.com. 6 October 2015. http://www.politics1.com/parties.htm

 

*Editorial: Family Leave – A Ruling for Fairness. May 29 2003. Cincinnati Enquirer. 6 October 2015. http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2003/05/29/editorial_FamilyLeave.html

 

*“Elections: The Maintenance of Democracy.” Democracy in America. Annenberg Foundation. 6 October 2015. http://www.learner.org/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_14/

 

*Employers’ Perspective. The Family Medical Leave Act. ENotes.com. 6 October 2015. http://www.enotes.com/everyday-law-encyclopedia/family-and-medical-leave-act-fmla#employers-perspective

 

*The Family Leave Bill Could Stick this Time. October 28 1991. Business Week .6 October 2015. http://www.businessweek.com/archives/1991/b323734.arc.htm

 

*In Family Leave Case, Supreme Court Steps Back Into Federalism Debate. Jan. 12 2003. New York Times. 6 October 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/12/politics/12SCOT.html

 

The Family Medical Leave Act. 29 USCS §§ 2601 - § 2654 (2005). National Partnership for Women and Families. 6 October 2015. http://www.nationalpartnership.org/site/DocServer/FMLAstatute.pdf?docID=964

 

*The Family and Medical Leave Issue: Small Business Reactions. Nicholls State University. 22 May 2010.

 

Harry and Louise on Clinton’s Healthcare Plan. YouTube. 6 October 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dt31nhleeCg

 

Harry and Louise Return. YouTube. 6 October 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGvkZszS21Y&feature=related

 

Harry and Louise are Back. YouTube. 6 October 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e3Y3JVitUcs&feature=channel

 

*Hamilton, Lee. How Congress Works and Why You Should Care. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004.

 

I’m Just a Bill. School House Rock. YouTube.com. 22 May 2010.

 

*Janda, Berry, Goldman. The Challenge of Democracy, 8th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, 2005.

 

*“Legislatures: Laying Down the Law.” Democracy in America. Annenberg Foundation. 6 October 2015. http://www.learner.org/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_6/

 

*Letter to US Department of Labor about The Family Medical Leave Act. National Partnership for Women and Families. 6 October 2015. http://www.nationalpartnership.org/site/DocServer/FMLALettertotheDOL.pdf?docID=961

 

*Milton C. Cummings, Jr. and David Wise. Democracy Under Pressure: An Introduction to the American Political System, 10th Edition. Thompson Higher Education: Belmont, CA, 2005.

 

*Monk, Linda R. The Words We Live By: Your Annotated Guide to the Constitution. Hyperion: New York, 2003.

 

*News. US Department of Energy. 22 May 2010.

 

Oakland Schools Teaching Research Writing Website: Skills Progression & Lessons http://www.osteachingresearchwriting.org/

 

*“Political Parties: Mobilizing Agents.” Democracy in America. Annenberg Foundation. 6 October 2015. http://www.learner.org/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_12/

 

*Praise for Catholic Bishops’ Statement on Children. New York Times. 17 Nov. 1991. 6 October 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/1991/11/17/us/praise-for-catholic-bishops-statement-on-children.html

 

*“Public Opinion: Voice of the People.” Democracy in America. Annenberg Foundation. 6 October 2015. http://www.learner.org/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_11/

 

*Saturday Night Live. NBC. 6 October 2015. http://www.nbc.com/Saturday_Night_Live/

 

*Scardino, Franco. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to U.S. Government & Politics. The Penguin Group, NY: 2009.

 

*Senate Letter to US Department of Labor about the Family Medical Leave Act. National Partnership for Women and Families. 6 October 2015. http://www.nationalpartnership.org/site/DocServer/FMLASenateLettertoDOL.pdf?docID=963

 

*“Understanding the Media: The Inside Story.” Democracy in America. Annenberg Foundation. 6 October 2015. http://www.learner.org/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_10/

 

*US News and World Report. Politics Section. 22 May 2010.

 

*What is a Filibuster? This Nation.com. 6 October 2015. http://www.thisnation.com/question/037.html

 

*“Women’s Groups Begin to Push for Parental Leave Measure. Sept. 8 1988. New York Times. 6 October 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/09/08/us/women-s-groups-begin-push-for-parental-leave-measure.html

 

Yankelovich, Daniel. The Seven Stages of Public Opinion. Public Agenda. 6 October 2015. http://www.publicagenda.org/pages/seven-stages-public-opinion

 

For Further Professional Knowledge

Elving, Ronald D. Conflict and Compromise: How Congress Makes the Law. NY: Touchstone Publishing, 1995.

 

Kingdon, John W. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. 2nd ed., NY: Harper Collins, 1995.

 

Lenhoff, Donna R. Family and Medical Leave in the United States: Historical and Political Reflections. 1 Oct. 2004. 22 May 2010.

 

Mann, Thomas E. and Norman J. Ornstein. The Broken Branch, updated edition. NY: Oxford University Press, 2008.

 

O’Connor, Karen and Larry J. Sabato. Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009.

 

Price, David E. The Congressional Experience. 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004.

 

Thurber, James A. Rival for Power: Presidential-Congressional Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman-Littlefield, 2009.

 

* Although the resources denoted with an asterisk are not cited in the lessons for this unit, they are included here to provide meaningful options for teachers.

 

 


XUnit 4: The Executive Branch and World Affairs
(Week 13, 3 Weeks)

This unit focuses on the executive branch of government, presidential elections, and the making of foreign policy. Students begin the unit by exploring the five constitutional grants of power delineated in Article II (executive, appointment, war, legislative, and treaty powers), and the limits on those powers. Expanding their understanding of the presidency to inherent powers, students examine executive prerogative and presidential roles (e.g., Commander-in-Chief, Chief Diplomat, Chief of Party, etc.). They learn that the executive branch is comprised of many different offices and agencies, including the Cabinet, which help the president faithfully execute the laws. Using historical examples of tensions between the branches, they consider how the legislative and judicial branches serve to check the power of the executive. In doing so, students explore the use executive privilege. Students are then introduced to the presidential election process and explore how the Electoral College influences campaigns. They analyze demographic data and voting trends with respect to presidential elections, plan campaign strategies for winning the electoral vote, and reflect on how money plays a role in presidential campaigns. Students also assess the demographic data and identify gaps in the information. Next, students hone their critical literacy skills by exploring and analyzing the accuracy and effectiveness of campaign ads and speeches. The last portion of the unit addresses world affairs as students distinguish between domestic and foreign policy and explore the process by which foreign policy is made. They revisit executive prerogative as it relates to the foreign policy realm. Students also examine how other actors and organizations are involved in shaping foreign policy, including the role of international organizations. Using historical examples, students study how the tools of foreign policy have varied according to the time period and the situation at hand. They also consider how foreign policy statements reflect evidence of idealism and realism in foreign policy philosophy. Students apply their knowledge of foreign policy to a case study of the Korean conflict. They then conclude the unit with an expository writing piece detailing the attributes of a foreign policy decision.

 



How are both knowledge about American constitutional government and actions by citizens essential components of effective government?


  1. How are the purposes of government and constitutional principles reflected in the powers and structure of the executive branch?
  2. How democratic are presidential campaigns and elections in the U.S.?
  3. How do economic, political, national security, and cultural issues influence U.S. foreign policy decisions?

cabinet

campaigns and elections

constitutional powers of the president

demographic data and trends

domestic vs. foreign policy

electoral College

executive prerogative

executive privilege

governmental and non-governmental international organizations

independent regulatory agencies

national security

roles of the president

succession


Cause and Effect

Classifying/Grouping

Describing

Identifying Perspectives

Non-linguistic Representations

Research



Equipment/Manipulative

Chart paper

 

Computer with Internet access

 

Markers

 

Overhead projector or document camera

 

Student Resource

2008 What ifs? Boston.com. 6 October 2015 http://www.boston.com/news/politics/2008/specials/demographic_map/

 

Campbell, Thomas J. “An Understanding of the Constitution’s Foreign Affairs Power.” The Heritage Foundation. 6 October 2015 http://www.heritage.org/Research/Lecture/An-Understanding-of-the-Constitutions-Foreign-Affairs-Power

 

Election Interactive Maps. 270towin.com. 6 October 2015 http://www.270towin.com

 

Executive Branch - Divisions off The Executive Branch. Law Library, American Law and Legal Information. 6 October 2015 http://law.jrank.org/pages/6653/Executive-Branch-Divisions-Executive-Branch.html

 

Fact Check.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. 6 October 2015 http://www.FactCheck.org

 

Independent Agencies and Government Corporations. USA.gov. 6 October 2015

http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/Federal/Independent.shtml

 

John Locke’s Second Treatise on Government, Chapter 14, Section 159. 15 April 2011

 

Lesson: Understanding the Language of Political Ads. The Living Room Candidate. Museum of the Moving Image. 6 October 2015 http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/lessons/15

 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. FAQs. 6 October 2015http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/faq.htm

 

PolitiFact.com. St. Petersburg Times. 6 October 2015 http://www.politifact.com

 

Polling Report.6 October 2015 http://www.pollingreport.com/

 

President’s Schedule. The White House. 15 April 2011.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/schedule/president

Teaching with Documents: The Korean Conflict. National Archives. 6 October 2015 http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/korean-conflict/

 

The Constitution of the United States, Analysis and Interpretation. United States Government Printing Office. 15 April 2011

 

The Democratic Party. 6 October 2015 http://www.democrats.org

 

The Heritage Foundation. 6 October 2015 http://www.heritage.org/

 

The Living Room Candidate: Presidential Campaign Commericials. 1952-2008. Museum of the Moving Image. 6 October 2015 http://www.livingroomcandidate.org

The Republican National Committee. 6 October 20 15http://www.gop.com/

 

The Seven Hat Challenge: Master the Roles of the President. Scholastic. Teacher. 6 October 2015 http://teacher.scholastic.com/scholasticnews/games_quizzes/president_roles/

 

Three Views of Presidential Power. Syracuse University. 6 October 2015 http://classes.maxwell.syr.edu/hst341/prezpower.htm

 

Trimble, Phillip R. Executive Perogative. 1992. 15 April 2011

 

U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Constitution Online. 6 October 2015 http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html

 

United Nations: An Introduction for Students. 15 January 2011

 

Who We Are. Amnesty International. 6 October 2015 http://www.amnesty.org/en/who-we-are

 

Who We Are. International Committee of the Red Cross. 6 October 2015 http://www.icrc.org/eng/who-we-are/index.jsp

 

Who We Are. Organization of American States. 6 October 2015 http://www.oas.org/en/about/who_we_are.asp

 

World Court. Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site. Natioal Park Services. 15 April 2011

 

Teacher Resource

Annotated Constitution. Cornell Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/html/art2frag12_user.html#art2_hd52

 

Herman, Susan. “Patriot Games: Terrorism, Law, and Executive Power.” The Jurist: Legal News and Research. University of Pittsburgh School of Law. 26 Jan. 2006. 15 April 2011

 

Mankani, Nirmal and Ethan Roeder, 2010 Turnout: Quantifying the Quandry: How Voting in 2010 will be Unlike any Previous Midterm in Recent History and How it will be Exactly the Same. New Organizing Institute. Sept. 2010. 6 October 2015 http://neworganizing.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/NOI-2010-Turnout.pdf

 

*Monk, Linda R. The Words We Live By: Your Annotated Guide to the Constitution. Hyperion: New York, 2003.

 

Oakland Schools Teaching Research Writing Website: Skills Progression & Lessons http://www.osteachingresearchwriting.org/

 

“Presidency - What is Executive Privilege and Why Do Presidents Like to Invoke It?” History News Network. 6 October 2015 http://www.hnn.us/articles/470.html

 

President Lincoln Signs the Emancipation Proclamation, 1863. Eyewitness to History. 15 April 2011

 

Presidential Politics. American Experience. PBS. 6 October 2015 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/32_f_roosevelt/f_roosevelt_politics.html

 

Root, Damon. “A Switch in Time Saves Nine.” Reason.com. 22 Jan. 2009. 6 October 2015 http://reason.com/archives/2009/01/22/a-switch-in-time-saves-nine

 

*Scardino, Franco. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to U.S. Government & Politics. The Penguin Group, NY: 2009.

 

The Treaty of the Louisiana Purchase. Archiving Early America. 6 October 2015 http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/louisiana/

 

Theodore Roosevelt Presidential Accomplishments. National Park Services. 15 April 2011

 

 

“Unit 4, Lesson 10, PowerPoint.” Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum, 6 October 2015.

http://www.micitizenshipcurriculum.org

 

Williams, Frank. “Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties in Wartime.” The Heritage Foundation. 5 May 2004. 6 October 2015 ://www.heritage.org/research/lecture/abraham-lincoln-and-civil-liberties-in-wartime>.

 

For Further Professional Knowledge

Barilleaux, Ryan J. and Christopher S. Kelley. Ed. The Unitary Executive and the Modern Presidency. Texas A & M University Press, 2010.

 

O’Connor, Karen and Larry J. Sabato. Essentials of American Government: Roots and Reform. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009.

 

Thurber, James A. Rival for Power: Presidential-Congressional Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman-Littlefield, 2009.

 

* Although the resources denoted with an asterisk are not cited in the lessons for this unit, they are included here to provide meaningful options for teachers.

 

 

 

 


XUnit 5: The Judicial Branch and Individual Rights
(Week 16, 3 Weeks)

This unit explores the judicial branch of government, the power of judicial review, and how the courts maintain the Constitution as the highest law of the land. Students begin by revisiting the seminal decision of Marbury v. Madison to explore how the courts, as interpreter of the law, retains a separate and distinct power, yet employs the power of judicial review as a check on the power of the other branches. They explore the organization and processes of the judicial branch and how these reflect the constitutional principles of separation of powers and federalism. As students learn about the federal court system, they distinguish between appellate and original jurisdiction. Students analyze the role of federalism and explore the concept of dual sovereignty in our constitutional system through a case study. They learn that where any case involves the U.S. Constitution, both state and federal court systems end with the U.S. Supreme Court. They then turn their attention to the Bill of Rights and its explicit protections against governmental action. After reviewing why the Bill of Rights was added, they consider how each of the rights serves to limit the power of government and promote democracy. Since the First Amendment contains five fundamental rights essential to our constitutional democracy (freedom of the press, speech, religion, association, and petition), students take a close and critical look at the specific text of the amendment, and consider the types of protections included within its purview. After exploring several free speech and expression cases, students work in groups to create an original free speech narrative that falls within the current gray area of First Amendment jurisprudence. Working in triads, students use existing case law to role play the arguments of both plaintiff and the government, while the third student acts as a judge rendering a decision based on precedent. Next, students examine the group of amendments that work within the criminal justice system to protect the rights of the accused found in the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments. Students engage in a simulation, close and critical readings, and a case study to deepen their understanding of the Fourth Amendment. Using a multi-modal approach, students then explore the rights under the Fifth and Sixth Amendments and the criteria used by the Supreme Court to consider their nature and scope. They reflect upon a number of scenarios to help them distinguish between the Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination and the Sixth Amendment right to an attorney. Students also explore the remedy fashioned by the courts to protect violations – the exclusionary rule and its limits. In considering the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment in the Eighth Amendment, students explore statistics on the death penalty and then consider some difficult cases, identifying the pros/cons on society in an effort to identify their own opinion on the issues presented. After engaging in a class discussion, they consider what factors make it difficult to decide whether a punishment is “cruel and unusual.” The unit concludes with an exploration of the Fourteenth Amendment and a review of the Incorporation Doctrine from Unit 2. Added to the Constitution as part of the Reconstruction Amendments at the end of the Civil War, the Fourteenth Amendment granted former slaves the rights of citizenship. Students explore how the Due Process and the Equal Protection Clauses in section 1 have significantly affected ideas of freedom and equality in the United States since its ratification. Students then consider affirmative action in college admissions through case studies and a debate. They then view a discussion on affirmative action from a Harvard University classroom. They conclude the unit by assessing how other groups have benefitted from the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and consider the current status of equal protection in the United States.



How are both knowledge about American constitutional government and actions by citizens essential components of effective government?


  1. How do the structures, functions, and relationships between the state and federal court systems resolve conflicts?
  2. How have the courts interpreted and applied the Bill of Rights to define the scope and limits of individual rights?
  3. How have the courts interpreted the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to both extend rights and limit power?

adversary system

constitutional supremacy

dual sovereignty

due process

equal protection

government (state) action

independent judiciary

individual rights

judicial review

jurisdiction

precedent

rule of law

trial/appellate/supreme courts


Classifying/Grouping

Compare and Contrast

Description

Evidentiary Argument

Identifying Perspectives

Issue Analysis

Predicting

Problem Solving




Equipment/Manipulative

Computer with Internet Access and Projector

 

Student Resource

“Bill of Rights.” Charters of Freedom. National Archives and Records Administration. 6 October 2015

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

 

Chase, Alycia and Jennifer Simone. PowerPoint Lesson 5 (Unit 5, Lesson 6). Teacher-made Materials. Oakland Schools. 2012.

 

- - -. Supplemental Materials (Unit 5, Lesson 5). Teacher-made Materials. Oakland Schools. 2012.

 

- - -. Supplemental Materials (Unit 5, Lesson 6). Teacher-made Materials. Oakland Schools. 2012.

 

“The Court’s Blow to Democracy.” New York Times Editorial. New York Times. 22 Jan. 2010. 6 October 2015 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/22/opinion/22fri1.html

 

Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/eighth_amendment

 

Evans, Tammy and Angela LoPiccolo. Supplemental Materials (Unit 5, Lesson 3). Teacher-made Materials. Oakland Schools, 2012.

 

Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015

http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/fifth_amendment

 

First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/first_amendment

 

Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Primary Documents in American History. 6 October 2015 http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/14thamendment.html

 

Fourteenth Amendment. U.S. Constitution. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

 

Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/fourth_amendment

 

Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicag-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2002/2002_02_516

 

Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicag-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2002/2002_02_241

 

Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967). The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent Collage of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1967/1967_35

 

Lee P. Arbetman and Edward L. O’Brien, Street Law: A Course in Practical Law, 6th ed. (Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co., 1999), Figure 5.2, p. 53, citing “Administrative Office of The United States Courts, January, 1993.”

 

LoPiccolo, Angela and Tammy Evans. Supplemental Materials (Unit 5, Lesson 4). Teacher made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012.

 

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966). The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent Collage of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1965/1965_759

 

New Jersey v. T.L.O, 469 U.S. 325 (1985). The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent Collage of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1983/1983_83_712

 

Opinion of Justice Souter in McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky (2005). US Supreme Court Center. Justia.com http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/545/03-1693/opinion.html

6 October 2015 http://www.justiceharvard.org/

 

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1970-1979/1977/1977_76_811

 

Remarks of Thurgood Marshall at the Annual Seminar of the San Francisco Patent and Trademark Law Association. Maui, Hawaii May 6, 1987. 6 October 2015 http://www.thurgoodmarshall.com/speeches/constitutional_speech.htm

 

Sherman, Paul. “Citizens United Decision Means More Free Speech.” Bench Memos. National Review Online. 22 January 2010. 6 October 2015 http://www.nationalreview.com/bench-memos/49332/citizens-united-decision-means-more-free-speech/paul-sherman

 

Simone, Jennifer and Alycia Chase. Supplemental Materials (Unit 5, Lesson 5). Teacher-made Materials. Oakland Schools. 2012.

 

Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/sixth_amendment

 

The Story of the Bill of Rights. Annenberg Classroom. The Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics. 6 October 2015 http://www.annenbergclassroom.org/page/the-story-of-the-bill-of-rights

 

“Understanding the Federal Courts.” Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, Leonidas Ralph Mecham, Director, 2003), pp. 9-10. 6 October 2015 http://www.uscourts.gov/FederalCourts/UnderstandingtheFederalCourts/FederalCourtsStructure.aspx

 

U.S. Constitution, Article III. Findlaw. 2012. 6 October 2015 http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/article03/

 

Zuschlag, Dirk. PowerPoint Lesson 1 (Unit 5, Lesson 1). Teacher-made Materials. Oakland Schools. 2012.

 

- - -. Supplemental Materials (Unit 5, Lesson 1). Teacher-made Materials. Oakland Schools. 2012.

 

- - - . Supplemental Materials (Unit 5, Lesson 2). Teacher-made Materials. Oakland Schools. 2012.

 

Teacher Resource

1st Amendment for All: Lesson Plans for the 1st Amendment. 6 October 2015 http://1forall.us/teach-the-first-amendment/

 

Aguilar v. Texas, 378 U.S. 108 (1964). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/378/108/case.html

 

Baker v. Carr – Case Brief Summary. Lawnix. 6 October 2015 http://www.lawnix.com/cases/baker-carr.html

 

Baker v. Carr – Significance. Law Library. American Law and Legal Information. 6 October 2015 http://law.jrank.org/pages/24894/Baker-v-Carr-Significance.html


Barbeau, Rich. “Case Studies on the Sixth Amendment: The Right to Counsel.” Civilly Speaking.org 6 October 2015 http://www.civicallyspeaking.org/case_studies_sixth.pdf

 

Benton v. Maryland, 395 U.S. 784 (1969). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/395/784/

 

Bill of Rights. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights

 

Bond v. Floyd. Milestone Documents. Schlager Group. 2012. 6 October 2015 http://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/bond-v-floyd/

 

Brandenburg v. Ohio. Casebriefs. 6 October 2015 http://www.ecasebriefs.com/blog/law/constitutional-law/constitutional-law-keyed-to-stone/freedom-of-expression/brandenburg-v-ohio-2

 

Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law, Inc., and The Supreme Court Historical Society.6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org/en/landmark/cases/brown_v_board_of_education

Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Summary of the Decision. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law, Inc., and The Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org/en/Page/522/Summary_of_the_Decision

 

Bush v. Gore. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2000/2000_00_949/

 

Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2000/2000_00_836

 

California v. Greenwood. Findlaw. 6 October 2015 http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=486&invol=35

 

California v. Greenwood. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1987/1987_86_684

 

Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296 (1940). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 7 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1939/1939_632

 

Caperton v. A.T. Massey Coal Co., Inc. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2008/2008_08_22

 

Caperton v. Massey. Brennan Center for Justice. New York University School of Law. 8 June 2009. 6 October 2015 http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/caperton_v_massey/

 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. v. City of Chicago, 166 U.S. 226 (1897). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1851-1900/1896/1896_129

 

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission Syllabus. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/08-205.ZS.html

 

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015

http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2008/2008_08_205

 

"Civil Rights and Equal Protection." Supreme Court Drama. Ed. Elizabeth M. Shaw. UXL-Thomson Gale, 2001. eNotes.com. 2006. 6 October 2015 http://www.enotes.com/supreme-court-drama/civil-rights-and-equal-protection

 

Cohen v. California. Case Briefs. 6 October 2015 http://www.ecasebriefs.com/blog/law/constitutional-law/constitutional-law-keyed-to-sullivan/freedom-of-speech-why-government-restricts-speech-unprotected-and-less-protected-expression/cohen-v-california-4/

Death Penalty Information Center. 6 October 2015 http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/methods-execution

 

DeJonge v. Oregon, 299 U.S. 353 (1937). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1936/1936_123

 

“Does the US need affirmative action?” ProCon. ACLU. 6 October 2015 http://aclu.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000697

 

Due Process. Merrian-Webster Online. 6 October 2015 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/due%20process

 

Due Process. Wikipedia. 6 October 2015 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Due_process

 

Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 145 (1968). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1967/1967_410

 

Edwards v. South Carolina, 372 U.S. 229 (1963) The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1962/1962_86

 

Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. 6 October 2015 http://law.jrank.org/pages/6368/Eighth-Amendment.html#ixzz1G9pwHwgl

 

Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1 (1947). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1949/1946/1946_52

 

Fourteenth Amendment. Annotated Constitution. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/html/amdt14a_user.html#amdt14a_hd1

 

Fourth Amendment. Annotated Constitution. Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/html/amdt4toc_user.html

 

Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1962/1962_155

 

Gitlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652 (1925). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1922/1922_19/

 

Grutter v. Bollinger. Duke Law School. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.duke.edu/publiclaw/supremecourtonline/certgrants/2002/gruvbol.html

 

Hamilton, Alexander. The Federalist No. 78 (1788). 6 October 2015 http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa78.htm

 

Help Tomorrow’s Citizens Find Their Voice. Teach the First Amendment. Knight Foundation. 6 October 2015 http://www.splc.org/teach/

 

Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516 (1884). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1851-1900/1883/1883_0

 

In re Oliver, 333 U.S. 257 (1948). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/333/257/case.html

 

Incorporation Doctrine. The Free Dictionary. Farlex. 6 October 2015 http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Incorporation+Doctrine

 

Kenneth Janda, Jeffrey M. Berry, and Jerry Goldman, The Challenge of Democracy, 9th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2008, p. 429).

 

Ker v. California, 374 U.S. 23 (1963). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/374/23/case.html

 

Klopfer v. North Carolina, 386 U.S. 213 (1967). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/386/213/

 

Landmark Supreme Court Cases about Students. United States Courts. Educational Resources. 6 October 2015 http://www.uscourts.gov/EducationalResources/ConstitutionResources/LegalLandmarks/LandmarkSupremeCourtCasesAboutStudents.aspx

 

Linder, Doug. Exploring Constitutional Law. University of Missouri-Kansas city Law School. 2001-2011. 6 October 2015 http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/home.html

 

Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1 (1964). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1963/1963_110

Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 64 (1961). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1960-1969/1960/1960_236

 

Mapp v. Ohio: Background Summary and Questions. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Mapp.background.two.aspx

 

Mapp v. Ohio: Summary of the Decision. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Mapp.decision.summary.aspx

 

Marbury v. Madison: Background Summary and Questions. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Marbury.background.two.aspx

 

Marbury v. Madison: Summary of the Decision. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.aspx?p=Landmark.Marbury.decision.summary

 

McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 3025 (2010). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2009/2009_08_1521

 

McKeiver v. Pennsylvania, 403 U.S. 528 (1971). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/403/528/case.html

 

Messerli, Joe. “Should affirmative action policies, which give preferential treatment based on minority status, eb eliminated?” Balanced Politics.org. 7 January 2012.6 October 2015 http://www.balancedpolitics.org/affirmative_action.htm

Minneapolis & St. Louis R. Co. v. Bombolis, 241 U.S. 211(1916). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/241/211/case.html

 

Miranda v. Arizona: Background Summary and Questions. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Miranda.background.three.aspx

 

Miranda v. Arizona: Summary of the Decision. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Miranda.decision.summary.aspx

 

Murphy v. Hunt, 455 U.S. 478 (1982), Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/455/478/

 

NAACP v. Alabama, 357 U.S. 449 (1958). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1950-1959/1957/1957_91/

 

Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1929/1929_91/

 

Notable First Amendment Court Cases. American Library Association. 1997-2012. 6 October 2015 http://www.ala.org/ala/aboutala/offices/oif/firstamendment/courtcases/courtcases.cfm#rr

 

Oakland Schools Teaching Research Writing Website: Skills Progression & Lessons http://www.osteachingresearchwriting.org/

 

Padfield, Stefan. “Citizens United And the Nexus-Of-Contracts Presumption.” Harvard Business Law Review. 18 Jan. 2011. 6 October 2015 http://www.hblr.org/2011/01/citizens-united-and-the-nexus-of-contracts-presumption/

 

Pillars of the First Amendment. United States Courts. Educational Resources. 6 October 2015

http://www.uscourts.gov/EducationalResources/ClassroomActivities/FirstAmendment/PillarsOfTheFirstAmendment.aspx

 

Plessy v. Ferguson, (1896). Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law, Inc., and The Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org/en/landmark/cases/plessy_v_ferguson#Tab=Overview

 

Plessy v. Ferguson, (1896). Summary of the Decision . Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law, Inc., and The Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org/en/Page/436/Summary_of_the_Decision

 

Pointer v. Texas, 380 U.S. 400 (1965). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015

http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/380/400/case.html

 

Robinson v. California, 370 U.S. 660 (1962). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015

http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/370/660/case.html

 

Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996). The Oyez Project. U.S. Supreme Court Media and ITT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1990-1999/1995/1995_94_1039

 

Scored Discussion. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law, Inc., and The Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org/en/Page.Landmark.strategies.discussion.aspx

 

Split Ruling on Affirmative Action. NPR. 23 June 2003. 6 October 2015 http://www.npr.org/news/specials/michigan/index.html

Teaching Module: Fourth Amendment Lesson Plan. Band of Rights. 6 October 2015 http://www.band-of-rights.org/fourth_amendment_lesson_plan.pdf

 

Texas v. Johnson. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1988/1988_88_155

Texas v. Johnson: Background Summary and Questions. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org/en/Page.Landmark.Johnson.background.three.aspx

 

Texas v. Johnson: Summary of the Decision. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Johnson.decision.summary.aspx

 

The Fifth Amendment. Revolutionary War and Beyond. 2008-2012. 6 October 2015 http://www.revolutionary-war-and-beyond.com/5th-amendment.html#ixzz1xhl04Gi9

 

The First Amendment. Revolutionary War and Beyond. 2008-2012. 6 October 2015 http://www.revolutionary-war-and-beyond.com/1st-amendment.html

 

The Fourth Amendment. Revolutionary War and Beyond. 2008-2012. 6 October 2015 http://www.revolutionary-war-and-beyond.com/4th-amendment.html

 

The Incorporation Debate. Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. University of Missouri-Kansas City Law School. 6 October 2015 http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/incorp.htm

 

The Justices v. Murray, 76 U.S. 274 (1869). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/76/274/

 

Understanding the Federal Courts. United States Courts. 6 October 2015 http://www.uscourts.gov/EducationalResources/FederalCourtBasics/UnderstandingTheFederalCourts.aspx

 

“Understanding Federal and State Courts Case Study.” United States Courts. 6 October 2015 http://www.uscourts.gov/EducationalResources/FederalCourtBasics/CourtStructure/UnderstandingFederalAndStateCourtsCaseStudy.aspx

 

United States v. Lopez. Bill of Rights Institute. 6 October 2015 http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/lessons-plans/landmark-cases-and-the-constitution/us-v-lopez-1995/12

 

United States v. Nixon: Background Summary and Questions. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015 http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Nixon.background.one.aspx

 

United States v. Nixon: Summary of the Decision. Landmark Cases of the Supreme Court. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. 6 October 2015

http://www.streetlaw.org//en/Page.Landmark.Nixon.decision.summary.aspx

 

Vernonia School District v. Acton. FindLaw. 6 October 2015

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=U10263

 

Vernonia School District v. Acton. Oyez. U.S. Supreme Court Media. 6 October 2015 http://www.oyez.org/cases/1990-1999/1994/1994_94_590

 

Vernonia School District v. Acton. University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. 6 October 2015 http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/veronia.html

 

Washington v. Texas, 388 U.S. 14 (1967). Justia.com. US Supreme Court Center. 6 October 2015 http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/388/14/case.html

 

What Does Free Speech Mean? United States Courts. Educational Resources. 6 October 2015 http://www.uscourts.gov/EducationalResources/ClassroomActivities/FirstAmendment/WhatDoesFreeSpeechMean.aspx

 

“What Does That Mean?” Our Courts. I-Civics. 21st Century Civics. 6 October 2015 http://static.icivics.org/sites/default/files/uploads/Interpreting-The-Constitution-Handouts.pdf

 

Youngston Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer. The Free Dictionary. Farlex. 6 October 2015 http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Steel+Seizure+Case

 

For Further Professional Knowledge

Baum, Lawrence. The American Courts: Process and Policy. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2013

 

- - -. The Supreme Court. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2007.

 

Carp, Robert A. and Ronald Stidham. Judicial Process in American. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2011.

Chemerinsky, Erwin. Constitutional Law: Principles And Policies (Introduction to Law Series). NY: Aspen Publishers, 2006. (textbook)

 

Epstein, Lee. Constitutional Law for a Changing America: Institutional Powers and Constraints. Washington, DC: CQ Press, Inc. 2007.

 

Hall, Kermit L. and Kevin T. McGuire. Institutions of American Democracy: The Judicial Branch. Oxford University Press. NY, 2005. (textbook)

 

O'Brien, David M. Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics. 9th ed. NY: W.W. Norton & Co., 2011.

 

Toobin, Jeffrey. The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court. Anchor Books, NY, 2008.

 

Tribe, Laurence H. Tribe's American Constitutional Law. 3d ed. Foundation Press, Inc. (University Textbook Series) 2000.


Wayne RESA