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### Algebra I (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 9 :: OS/MAISA :: Mathematics

Introduction to the MAISA CCSS Mathematics Curriculum Materials

The curriculum materials are designed to:

• be professional learning tools to improve educators’ understanding of the CCSS;
• organize the CCSS into mathematically coherent and sequenced units of study that make visible connections among mathematical ideas. They are not designed to prescribe a single pathway through a particular unit; and
• provide a context for conversations among colleagues (e.g., Professional Learning Communities) within and across grades. Lesson and assessment topics within the units of study are selected to highlight content that might be new, different, or challenging for teachers and students. This highlighted content may be used to spark important planning and problem solving discussions related to the CCSS implementation.

Algebra I Course Overview

Building off the notions of function first introduced in middle school, Algebra I begins with a general exploration of functions and tools that students use to study specific functions in more depth throughout the course. Students model linear, exponential, quadratic, and polynomial functions. In the process of modeling, students use tables, graphs, and equations to solve problems like compounding interest, and projectile motion. The course concludes with a culminating unit on bivariate statistics where students not only study categorical data but also use scatter plots and their knowledge of functions to fit functions to data. As in all mathematics courses, the Standards for Mathematical Practice are the “processes and proficiencies” by which all other mathematics standards are taught.

Rationale

Since the majority of districts in Michigan follow a traditional United States sequence, the standards and units have been organized into Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II courses. As described in the Michigan Merit Curriculum (MMC) Law, districts may choose to reorganize the units to align with an integrated approach.

Scope and Sequence

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. Beginning the course with foundational function ideas and tools allows students to apply these ideas with each function family they explore in the course. The intent of putting statistics at the end of the course is to allow students opportunities to use their knowledge of multiple function families to fit both linear and nonlinear functions to multiple data sets.

Alignment

This course is aligned to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics.

Using the MAISA Michigan K-12 Standards for Mathematics Units of Study for Mathematics - FAQs

### Algebra I (EngageNY May 2016) :: Curriculum, EngageNY :: Grade 9 :: NYSED Modules :: Mathematics

Module 1: Relationships Between Quantities and Reasoning with Equations and Their Graphs
Module 2: Descriptive Statistics
Module 3: Linear and Exponential Functions
Module 4: Polynomial and Quadratic Expressions, Equations and Functions
Module 5: A Synthesis of Modeling with Equations and Functions

Summary of Year

The fundamental purpose of this course is to formalize and extend the mathematics that students learned in the middle grades. Because it is built on the middle grades standards, this is a more ambitious version of Algebra I than has generally been offered. The modules deepen and extend understanding of linear and exponential relationships by contrasting them with each other and by applying linear models to data that exhibit a linear trend, and students engage in methods for analyzing, solving, and using quadratic functions. The Mathematical Practice Standards apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

Recommended Fluencies for Algebra I

• Solving characteristic problems involving the analytic geometry of lines, including, writing the equation of a line given a point and a slope.
• Adding, subtracting and multiplying polynomials.
• Transforming expressions and chunking (seeing the parts of an expression as a single object) as used in factoring, completing the square, and other algebraic calculations.

CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters

Seeing Structure in Expressions

• Interpret the structure of expressions

Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions

• Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials

Creating Equations

• Create equations that describe numbers or relationships

Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities

• Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning
• Solve equations and inequalities in one variable
• Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically

Interpreting Functions

• Understand the concept of a function and use function notation
• Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context

Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data

• Interpret linear models

Rationale for Module Sequence in Algebra I
Module 1: By the end of eighth grade, students have learned to solve linear equations in one variable and have applied graphical and algebraic methods to analyze and solve systems of linear equations in two variables. Now, students analyze and explain precisely the process of solving an equation. Students, through reasoning, develop fluency writing, interpreting, and translating between various forms of linear equations and inequalities, and make conjectures about the form that a linear equation might take in a solution to a problem. They reason abstractly and quantitatively by choosing and interpreting units in the context of creating equations in two variables to represent relationships between quantities. They master the solution of linear equations and apply related solution techniques and the properties of exponents to the creation and solution of simple exponential equations. They learn the terminology specific to polynomials and understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers.

Module 2: This module builds upon students’ prior experiences with data, providing students with more formal means of assessing how a model fits data. Students display and interpret graphical representations of data, and if appropriate, choose regression techniques when building a model that approximates a linear relationship between quantities. They analyze their knowledge of the context of a situation to justify their choice of a linear model. With linear models, they plot and analyze residuals to informally assess the goodness of fit.

Module 3: In earlier grades, students defined, evaluated, and compared functions in modeling relationships between quantities. In this module, students learn function notation and develop the concepts of domain and range. They explore many examples of functions, including sequences; they interpret functions given graphically, numerically, symbolically, and verbally, translate between representations, and understand the limitations of various representations. Students build on their understanding of integer exponents to consider exponential functions with integer domains. They compare and contrast linear and exponential functions, looking for structure in each and distinguishing between additive and multiplicative change. Students explore systems of equations and inequalities, and they find and interpret their solutions. They interpret arithmetic sequences as linear functions and geometric sequences as exponential functions. In building models of relationships between two quantities, students analyze the key features of a graph or table of a function.

Module 4: In this module, students build on their knowledge from Module 3. Students strengthen their ability to discern structure in polynomial expressions. They create and solve equations involving quadratic and cubic expressions. In this module’s modeling applications, students reason abstractly and quantitatively in interpreting parts of an expression that represent a quantity in terms of its context; they also learn to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them by choosing or producing equivalent forms of an expression (e.g., completing the square in a quadratic expression to reveal a maximum value). Students consider quadratic functions, comparing the key characteristics of quadratic functions to those of linear and exponential functions. They learn through repeated reasoning to anticipate the graph of a quadratic function by interpreting the structure of various forms of quadratic expressions. In particular, they identify the real solutions of a quadratic equation as the zeros of a related quadratic function.

Module 5: In this module, students expand their experience with functions to include more specialized functions—linear, exponential, quadratic, square and cube root, and those that are piecewise-defined, including absolute value and step. Students select from among these functions to model phenomena using the modeling cycle (see page 61 of the CCLS).

### Algebra II (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: 9 - 12 :: OS/MAISA :: Mathematics

Introduction to the MAISA Michigan K-12 Standards for Mathematics Curriculum Materials

The curriculum materials are designed to:

• be professional learning tools to improve educators’ understanding of the Michigan K-12 Standards for Mathematics;
• organize the Michigan K-12 Standards for Mathematics into mathematically coherent and sequenced units of study that make visible connections among mathematical ideas. They are not designed to prescribe a single pathway through a particular unit; and
• provide a context for conversations among colleagues (e.g., Professional Learning Communities) within and across grades. Lesson and assessment topics within the units of study are selected to highlight content that might be new, different, or challenging for teachers and students. This highlighted content may be used to spark important planning and problem solving discussions related to the Michigan K-12 Standards for Mathematics implementation.

**Please read the following attachment addressing FAQs before using the MAISA Michigan K-12 Standards for MathematicsI **

Algebra II Overview

The study of functions that began in eighth grade and Algebra I continues in Algebra II, as students connect familiar linear and exponential functions to make sense of sequences and series. In addition, students are introduced to functions that have new features like limiting end behaviors, asymptotes, amplitude, and periodicity (i.e., rational, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions). Quadratic functions and conic sections provide a context for students to work with complex numbers, examine new features like the focus and directrix, and make connections between algebraic and geometric representations.

Students also engage in a more mathematically sophisticated study of statistics and probability that began in middle school. Students continue to summarize, represent, and interpret one variable statistics. In addition, they make inferences and justify conclusions from surveys, experiments, and observational studies. They work with independent and conditional probability, use rules to compute probabilities, and use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions.

Rationale

Since the majority of districts in Michigan follow a traditional United States sequence, the standards and units have been organized into Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II courses. As described in the Michigan Merit Curriculum (MMC) Law , districts may choose to reorganize the units to align with an integrated approach.

Scope and Sequence

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum.

Alignment

This course is aligned to the Michigan K-12 Standards for Mathematics.

Using the MAISA CCSS Units of Study for Mathematics - FAQ

### Algebra II (EngageNY May 2016) :: Curriculum, EngageNY :: 9 - 12 :: NYSED Modules :: Mathematics

Module 1: Polynomial, Rational, and Radical Relationships
Module 2: Trigonometric Functions
Module 3: Functions
Module 4: Inferences and Conclusions from Data

Summary of Year
Building on their work with linear, quadratic, and exponential functions, students extend their repertoire of functions to include polynomial, rational, and radical functions. Students work closely with the expressions that define the functions, and continue to expand and hone their abilities to model situations and to solve equations, including solving quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers and solving exponential equations using the properties of logarithms. The Mathematical Practice Standards apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

Recommended Fluencies for Algebra II

• Divide polynomials with remainder by inspection in simple cases.
• See structure in expressions and use this structure to rewrite expressions (e.g., factoring, grouping).
• Translate between recursive definitions and closed forms for problems involving sequences and series.

CCLS Major Emphasis Clusters
The Real Number System

• Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents

Seeing Structure in Expressions

• Interpret the structure of expressions
• Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems

Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions

• Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials

Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities

• Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning
• Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically

Interpreting Functions

• Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context

Building Functions

• Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities

Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions

• Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments and observational studies

Rationale for Module Sequence in Algebra II

Module 1: In this module, students draw on analogies between polynomial arithmetic and base-ten computation, focusing on properties of operations, particularly the distributive property. Students connect the structure inherent in multi-digit whole number multiplication with multiplication of polynomials, and similarly connect division of polynomials with long division of integers. Students identify zeros of polynomials, including complex zeros of quadratic polynomials. Through regularity in repeated reasoning, they make connections between zeros of polynomials and solutions of polynomial equations. Students analyze the key features of a graph or table of a polynomial function and relate those features back to the two quantities in the problem that the function is modeling. A theme of this module is that the arithmetic of rational expressions is governed by the same rules as the arithmetic of rational numbers.

Module 2: Building on their previous work with functions, and on their work with trigonometric ratios and circles in Geometry, students extend trigonometric functions to all (or most) real numbers. To reinforce their understanding of these functions, students begin building fluency with the values of sine, cosine, and tangent at π/6, π/4, π/3, π/2, etc. Students make sense of periodic phenomena as they model with trigonometric functions.

Module 3: In this module students synthesize and generalize what they have learned about a variety of function families. They extend their work with exponential functions to include solving exponential equations with logarithms. They explore (with appropriate tools) the effects of transformations on graphs of diverse functions, including functions arising in an application. They notice, by looking for general methods in repeated calculations, that the transformations on a graph always have the same effect regardless of the type of the underlying function. These observations lead to students to conjecture and construct general principles about how the graph of a function changes after applying a function transformation to that function. Students identify appropriate types of functions to model a situation, they adjust parameters to improve the model, and they compare models by analyzing appropriateness of fit and making judgments about the domain over which a model is a good fit. The description of modeling as, “the process of choosing and using mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to make decisions,” is at the heart of this module. In particular, through repeated opportunities in working through the modeling cycle (see page 61 of the CCLS), students acquire the insight that the same mathematical or statistical structure can sometimes model seemingly different situations.

Module 4: In this module, students see how the visual displays and summary statistics they learned in earlier grades relate to different types of data and to probability distributions. They identify different ways of collecting data— including sample surveys, experiments, and simulations—and the role that randomness and careful design play in the conclusions that can be drawn. Students create theoretical and experimental probability models following the modeling cycle (see page 61 of CCLS). They compute and interpret probabilities from those models for compound events, attending to mutually exclusive events, independent events, and conditional probability.

### Biology (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 11 :: OS/MAISA :: Science

Title: Biology

Overview

This course is designed to enable schools to offer the credit in biology since all high school biology content expectations are addressed. Biology could be offered in the junior year in the physics first or modified physics first course sequences and in the sophomore year of the transitional course sequence. The course opens with an introductory unit that familiarizes students with nature of scientific inquiry in biology and establishes two overarching themes of the discipline: interconnectedness of biological systems and evolution. The units that follow proceed through a treatment of cell theory, genetics, evolution and biodiversity. The instructional approach of the course is one of constructivist inquiry where students’ master key concepts and skills through the pursuit of focus questions using explorative activities, experimentation, concept writing and substantive classroom discussion. The course should also include a problem-based learning approach for real-world issues related to biology.

Sequencing of Units:

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. It's important to understand that the first unit acknowledges that evolution and systems interactions provide the dominant overarching paradigms for concepts in biology. The basics of these ideas are introduced in the first unit so they may be referenced while studying all other topics. At the end of the course, a deep treatment of evolution and ecology occurs.

Course Rationale:

This course in biology provides students with an understanding of how humans are part of and impact biological systems. It equips them with the understandings they need to properly understand the dynamics of life on Earth.

Alignment:

This course is aligned to the Michigan High School Content Expectations in Biology.

### Chemistry MSS Draft (WD)  :: 8 Curriculum Developers :: 9 - 12 :: Wayne RESA :: Science

The goal of this project is to provide materials to support teachers in the implementation of the Michigan Science Standards (MSS). The chemistry related performance expectations have been selected and bundled into 8 units and are meant to be taught in a traditional 2 semester chemistry course. The writing team has discussed that many school districts may be considering alternative methods of delivering the MSS, specifically the Physical Science content. After discussing that possibility, the team has decided that the immediate need for teachers will still be materials to support a stand-alone chemistry course. Therefore, not all of the physical science performance expectations are addressed in this curriculum plan. The ones that are not included are intended to be taught in other high school science classes.

Unit 1-The Particulate Nature of Matter

MS-PS1-5 Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.

HS-PS2-6 Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

HS-PS1-7 Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

HS-PS2-6 Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

Unit 2-Matter and Interactions

MS-PS1-4 Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

ET S1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

HS-ETS1-2. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

Unit 3-Energy

HS-PS1-3 Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

HS-PS3-1 Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.

HS-PS3-2 Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects).

HS-PS3-3 Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

HS-PS3-4 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).

Unit 4-Bonding and Nomenclature

HS-PS1-1 Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

HS-PS1-2 Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

HS-PS1-3 Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

Unit 5-Chemical Change

HS-PS1-2 Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

HS-PS1-4 Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

HS-PS1-5 Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.

HS-PS1-6 Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.

HS-PS1-7 Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

Unit 6-Chemical Quantities

HS-PS1-4 Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

HS-PS1-7 Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

HS-PS3-1. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component and energy flow in and out of the system are known.

Unit 7-Bonding and the Periodic Table

HS-PS1-1 Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

HS-PS1-3 Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

HS-PS1-8 Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

HS-PS2-6 Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

HS-PS1-2 Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

HS-PS2-4 Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

HS-PS3-5 Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

HS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. (This will be conceptual not calculations)

Unit 8 - Nuclear Chemistry

HS-PS1-1. Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.

HS-PS1-8. Develop models to illustrate the changes in composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion and radioactive decay.

Performance Expectations not covered in this curriculum

HS-PS2-1 Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

HS-PS2-2 Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

HS-PS2-3 Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

HS-PS2-4 Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.

HS-PS2-5 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

HS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.

HS-PS4-2 Evaluate questions about the advantages of using a digital transmission and storage of information.

HS-PS4-3 Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.

HS-PS4-4 Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

HS-PS4-5 Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.

### Chinese - Grade 1 (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 1 :: OS/MAISA :: World Languages

Overview

This course is intended for students who are in their second year of studying Chinese in the elementary school. The course is designed for a Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program. This yearlong course is proficiency-oriented with a focus on meaningful communication rather than on grammatical structure. As recommended by the American Association of Teachers of Foreign Language, it is expected that the teacher will use the target language at least 90% of the time for all class purposes. The target language is used as a means of communication so that students first understand and then produce the language. Students review and build upon the first grade curriculum. They begin to describe items, weather, and people as well as continue to make interdisciplinary connections to other subject areas such as music and art. The curriculum has a spiral design, so that greater detail, rigor, and breadth are added to similar themes of study each subsequent school year. Students start by simply recognizing and responding to the target language. Next, they begin to use the words independently within an appropriate conversational context. This transition happens naturally as the curriculum spirals and builds on previous learning from unit to unit and grade level to grade level. Since Chinese requires the learning of a totally different writing system, instruction includes recognizing specific characters within each unit. Students are also introduced to writing specific Pinyin combinations and characters within each unit.

Rationale

Studies show that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time devoted to language study and the language proficiency that the students attain (Curtain & Pesola, 1988). It can be argued, therefore, that children who begin world language study in elementary school, and who continue such study for a number of years, have a better chance of developing a high level of world language proficiency than do students beginning second language learning in the post elementary school years.

A world language provides learners the cultural knowledge and communicative skills to become globally competent and engage with the ever more flattening world. By developing proficiency in another language, learners are able to explore communities beyond their own, interact with people from different cultures, and engage in common educational, career-oriented, and leisure activities with native speakers.

Scope and Sequence

This course has been designed for a FLES program that meets a minimum of three times per week for 30 minutes per session. Teachers who teach in a Foreign Language EXperience model (FLEX) will need to adjust the content.

There are six units of study thematically arranged. Careful thought has been given to the order in which the six units of study are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. Vocabulary from previous units is reinforced in subsequent unit themes and contexts.

Alignment

The Chinese Grade 1 course is aligned to the Michigan World Language Standards and Benchmarks as well as the National Standards for Language Learning.

### Chinese - Grade 2 (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 2 :: OS/MAISA :: World Languages

Overview

This course is intended for students who are in their third year of studying Chinese in the elementary school. The course is designed for a Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program. This yearlong course is proficiency-oriented with a focus on meaningful communication rather than on grammatical structure. Students continue to build upon themes from prior grades while they add new topics to their repertoire. As recommended by the American Association of Teachers of Foreign Language, it is expected that the teacher will use the target language at least 90% of the time for all class purposes. The target language is used as a means of communication so that students first understand and then produce the language. The curriculum has a spiral design, so that greater detail, rigor, and breadth are added to similar themes of study each subsequent school year. Students start by simply recognizing and responding to the target language. Next, they begin to use the words independently within an appropriate conversational context. This transition happens naturally as the curriculum spirals and builds on previous learning from unit to unit and grade level to grade level. Since Chinese requires the learning of a totally different writing system, instruction includes recognizing specific characters within each unit. Students are also introduced to writing specific pinyin combinations and characters within each unit. They engage in reading and writing of familiar, practiced language content.

Rationale

Studies show that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time devoted to language study and the language proficiency that the students attain (Curtain & Pesola, 1988). It can be argued, therefore, that children who begin world language study in elementary school, and who continue such study for a number of years, have a better chance of developing a high level of world language proficiency than do students beginning second language learning in the post elementary school years.

A world language provides learners the cultural knowledge and communicative skills to become globally competent and engage with the ever more flattening world. By developing proficiency in another language, learners are able to explore communities beyond their own, interact with people from different cultures, and engage in common educational, career-oriented, and leisure activities with native speakers.

Scope and Sequence

This course has been designed for a FLES program that meets a minimum of three times per week for 30 minutes per session. Teachers who teach in a Foreign Language EXperience model (FLEX) will need to adjust the content.

There are six units of study thematically arranged. Careful thought has been given to the order in which the six units of study are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. Vocabulary from previous units is reinforced in subsequent unit themes and contexts.

Alignment

The Chinese Grade 2 course is aligned to the Michigan World Language Standards and Benchmarks as well as the National Standards for Language Learning.

### Chinese - Grade 3 (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 3 :: OS/MAISA :: World Languages

Overview

This course is intended for students who are in their fourth year of studying Chinese in the elementary school. The course is designed for a Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program. This yearlong course is proficiency-oriented with a focus on meaningful communication rather than on grammatical structure. The curriculum has a spiral design, so that greater detail, rigor, and breadth are added to similar themes of study each subsequent school year. As recommended by the American Association of Teachers of Foreign Language, it is expected that the teacher will use the target language at least 90% of the time for all class purposes. Students start by simply recognizing and responding to the target language. Next, they begin to use the words independently within an appropriate conversational context. This transition happens naturally as the curriculum spirals and builds on previous learning from unit to unit and grade level to grade level. Students continue to build upon themes from prior grades while they add new topics to their repertoire. As students progress into the third grade curriculum, they continue to develop their listening and speaking skills along with guided reading and writing of familiar topics and vocabulary. They create and present authentic skits mirroring real life situations such as ordering in a restaurant and going to the doctor. The target language is used as a means of communication so that students first understand and then produce the language. Since Chinese requires the learning of a totally different writing system, instruction includes recognizing specific characters within each unit. Students continue to review Pinyin, write specific characters and are also introduced to radicals within each unit.

Rationale

Studies show that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time devoted to language study and the language proficiency that the students attain (Curtain & Pesola, 1988). It can be argued, therefore, that children who begin world language study in elementary school, and who continue such study for a number of years, have a better chance of developing a high level of world language proficiency than do students beginning second language learning in the post elementary school years.

A world language provides learners the cultural knowledge and communicative skills to become globally competent and engage with the ever more flattening world. By developing proficiency in another language, learners are able to explore communities beyond their own, interact with people from different cultures, and engage in common educational, career-oriented, and leisure activities with native speakers.

Scope and Sequence

This course has been designed for a FLES program that meets a minimum of three times per week for 30 minutes per session. Teachers who teach in a Foreign Language EXperience model (FLEX) will need to adjust the content.

There are six units of study thematically arranged. Careful thought has been given to the order in which the six units of study are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. Vocabulary from previous units is reinforced in subsequent unit themes and contexts.

Alignment

The Chinese Grade 3 course is aligned to the Michigan World Language Standards and Benchmarks as well as the National Standards for Language Learning.

### Chinese - Grade 4 (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 4 :: OS/MAISA :: World Languages

Overview

This course is intended for students who are beginning their fifth year of studying Chinese in the elementary school. The course is designed for a Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program. This yearlong course is proficiency-oriented with a focus on meaningful communication rather than on grammatical structure. Students continue to build upon themes from prior grades while they add new topics to their repertoire. As students progress into the fourth grade curriculum, they continue to develop their listening and speaking skills along with guided reading and writing of familiar topics and vocabulary. Students synthesize topics and simple grammatical constructions to provide a sense of connection and purpose to their oral proficiency. The units of study incorporate new themes and scaffold many of the themes studied in previous years. A new element includes reading a short story and performing this well-known play for an audience!

As recommended by the American Association of Teachers of Foreign Language, it is expected that the teacher will use the target language at least 90% of the time for all class purposes. The target language continues to be used as a means of communication so that students first understand and then produce the language. The curriculum has a spiral design, so that greater detail, rigor, and breadth are added to similar themes of study each subsequent school year. Students start by simply recognizing and responding to the target language. Next, they begin to use the words independently within an appropriate conversational context. This transition happens naturally as the curriculum spirals and builds on previous learning from unit to unit and grade level to grade level. Since Chinese requires the learning of a totally different writing system, instruction includes recognizing specific characters within each unit. Students continue to review Pinyin, practice writing specific characters and are also introduced to stroke order and radicals within each unit.

Rationale

Studies show that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time devoted to language study and the language proficiency that the students attain (Curtain & Pesola, 1988). It can be argued, therefore, that children who begin world language study in elementary school, and who continue such study for a number of years, have a better chance of developing a high level of world language proficiency than do students beginning second language learning in the post elementary school years.

A world language provides learners the cultural knowledge and communicative skills to become globally competent and engage with the ever more flattening world. By developing proficiency in another language, learners are able to explore communities beyond their own, interact with people from different cultures, and engage in common educational, career-oriented, and leisure activities with native speakers.

Scope and Sequence

This course has been designed for a FLES program that meets a minimum of three times per week for 30 minutes per session. Teachers who teach in a Foreign Language EXperience model (FLEX) will need to adjust the content.

There are six units of study thematically arranged. Careful thought has been given to the order in which the six units of study are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. Vocabulary from previous units is reinforced in subsequent unit themes and contexts.

Alignment

The Chinese Grade 4 course is aligned to the Michigan World Language Standards and Benchmarks as well as the National Standards for Language Learning.

### Chinese - Grade 5 (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 5 :: OS/MAISA :: World Languages

Overview

This course is intended for students who are beginning their sixth year of studying Chinese in the elementary school. The course is designed for a Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program. This yearlong course is proficiency-oriented with a focus on meaningful communication rather than on grammatical structure. Students continue to build upon themes from prior grades while they add new topics to their repertoire. As students progress into the fifth grade curriculum, they continue to develop their listening and speaking skills along with guided reading and writing of familiar topics and vocabulary. Students synthesize topics and simple grammatical constructions to provide a sense of connection and purpose to their oral proficiency. The units of study incorporate new themes and scaffold many of the themes studied in previous years. Students engage in high interest content such practicing calligraphy, talking about fast food in China and looking ahead to life in middle school.

As recommended by the American Association of Teachers of Foreign Language, it is expected that the teacher will use the target language at least 90% of the time for all class purposes. The target language continues to be used as a means of communication so that students first understand and then produce the language. The curriculum has a spiral design, so that greater detail, rigor, and breadth are added to similar themes of study each subsequent school year. Students start by simply recognizing and responding to the target language. Next, they begin to use the words independently within an appropriate conversational context. This transition happens naturally as the curriculum spirals and builds on previous learning from unit to unit and grade level to grade level. Since Chinese requires the learning of a totally different writing system, instruction includes recognizing specific characters within each unit. Students continue to review Pinyin, practice writing specific characters and are also introduced to stroke order and radicals within each unit.

Rationale

Studies show that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time devoted to language study and the language proficiency that the students attain (Curtain & Pesola, 1988). It can be argued, therefore, that children who begin world language study in elementary school, and who continue such study for a number of years, have a better chance of developing a high level of world language proficiency than do students beginning second language learning in the post elementary school years.

A world language provides learners the cultural knowledge and communicative skills to become globally competent and engage with the ever more flattening world. By developing proficiency in another language, learners are able to explore communities beyond their own, interact with people from different cultures, and engage in common educational, career-oriented, and leisure activities with native speakers.

Scope and Sequence

This course has been designed for a FLES program that meets a minimum of three times per week for 30 minutes per session. Teachers who teach in a Foreign Language EXperience model (FLEX) will need to adjust the content.

There are six units of study thematically arranged. Careful thought has been given to the order in which the six units of study are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. Vocabulary from previous units is reinforced in subsequent unit themes and contexts.

Alignment

The Chinese Grade 5 course is aligned to the Michigan World Language Standards and Benchmarks as well as the National Standards for Language Learning.

### Chinese - Kindergarten (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Kindergarten :: OS/MAISA :: World Languages

Elementary Chinese - Kindergarten

Overview

This course is intended for students who are beginning their study of Chinese in the elementary school. The course is designed for a Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program. This yearlong course is proficiency-oriented with a focus on meaningful communication rather than on grammatical structure. The target language is used as a means of communication so that students first understand and then produce the language. As recommended by the American Association of Teachers of Foreign Language, it is expected that the teacher will use the target language at least 90% of the time for all class purposes. The curriculum has a spiral design, so that greater detail, rigor, and breadth are added to similar themes of study each subsequent school year. Students start by simply recognizing and responding to the target language. Next, they begin to use the words independently within an appropriate conversational context. This transition happens naturally as the curriculum spirals and builds on previous learning from unit to unit and grade level to grade level. Since Chinese requires the learning of a totally different writing system, instruction includes recognizing specific characters within each unit.

Rationale

Studies show that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time devoted to language study and the language proficiency that the students attain (Curtain & Pesola, 1988). It can be argued, therefore, that children who begin world language study in elementary school, and who continue such study for a number of years, have a better chance of developing a high level of world language proficiency than do students beginning second language learning in the post elementary school years.

A world language provides learners the cultural knowledge and communicative skills to become globally competent and engage with the ever more flattening world. By developing proficiency in another language, learners are able to explore communities beyond their own, interact with people from different cultures, and engage in common educational, career-oriented, and leisure activities with native speakers.

Scope and Sequence

This course has been designed for a FLES program that meets a minimum of three times per week for 30 minutes per session. Teachers who teach in a Foreign Language EXperience model (FLEX) will need to adjust the content.

There are eight units of study thematically arranged. Careful thought has been given to the order in which the six units of study are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. Vocabulary from previous units is reinforced in subsequent unit themes and contexts.

Alignment

The Chinese Kindergarten course is aligned to the Michigan World Language Standards and Benchmarks as well as the National Standards for Language Learning.

### Chinese Level 1 (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 9 :: OS/MAISA :: World Languages

Chinese Level 1 / Middle - High School

Overview

The Chinese Level 1 course is an introduction to China, its language and culture. It is intended for use with middle and/or high school students who have not studied Chinese before. The goal of this course is to develop students’ interpersonal, interpretive and presentational skills in Chinese. In this yearlong course, students begin to communicate in Chinese using basic structures to speak, read, listen and write about themselves, their family, friends, interests, and how the concept of time is organized. The study of Chinese also requires learning and applying a new writing system. Students begin to learn common Chinese characters and develop an understanding of the relationship between characters and words. The students’ reading and writing skills at this level are very limited. Therefore, transliteration into the Roman alphabet using Pinyin may be used as a transition or bridge into reading and writing fully in the target language alphabet or script. Learners may take longer to reach the same proficiency level in reading and writing than they would in Roman alphabet languages; therefore, the students’ reading and writing skills at this level are very limited. In tonal languages like Chinese, speaking and listening skills also take longer to develop. Although the focus of this course is on communication and intercultural competency, the units of study also support cross-curricular content, including the arts, health, science, language arts and social studies. Career opportunities with language skills are also explored. As recommended by the American Association of Teachers of Foreign Language, it is expected that the teacher will use the target language at least 90% of the time for all class purposes.

Rationale

A world language provides learners the cultural knowledge and communicative skills to become globally competent and engage with the ever more flattening world. By developing proficiency in another language learners are able to explore communities beyond their own, interact with people from different cultures, and engage in common educational, career-oriented, and leisure activities with native speakers.

Scope and Sequence

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. In this course, students learn to talk about themselves before they go on to talk about family or friends. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum.

Alignment

The Chinese Level 1 course is aligned to the Michigan World Language Standards and Benchmarks and the National Standards for Language Learning.

### Chinese Level 2 (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 10 :: OS/MAISA :: World Languages

Chinese Level 2 - Middle / High School

Overview

Chinese Level 2 is intended for middle and/or high school students who have completed a Chinese Level 1 course or who have demonstrated a Novice Mid level of proficiency. In this yearlong course, students communicate in Chinese using basic structures to speak, read, listen and write about their lives and school life, shopping, weather, travel and transportation. They continue to develop their communicative and cultural competence by interacting with others in Chinese, listening to and reading text in the target language and making oral and written presentations in Chinese. Students begin to show a greater level of accuracy when using basic language structures, and they are exposed to more complex features of Chinese. While the focus remains on communicating about their immediate world and daily activities they become aware of the differences in expression of time (e.g., present, future). Emphasis continues to be placed on use of Chinese in the classroom as well as on the use of authentic materials to learn about the language and its cultures. Although the focus of this course is on communication and intercultural competency, the units of study also support cross-curricular content, including the arts, health, science, language arts and social studies. As recommended by the American Association of Teachers of Foreign Language, it is expected that the teacher will use the target language at least 90% of the time for all class purposes.

Rationale

A world language provides learners the cultural knowledge and communicative skills to become globally competent and engage with the ever more flattening world. By developing proficiency in another language learners are able to explore communities beyond their own, interact with people from different cultures, and engage in common educational, career-oriented, and leisure activities with native speakers.

Scope and Sequence

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. In this course, students refresh their understanding of oral and written communication before they go on to talk about school life, etc. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum.

Alignment

The Chinese Level 2 course is aligned to the Michigan World Language Standards and Benchmarks and the National Standards for Language Learning.

### Civics and Government :: RESA, MAISA MC3 Units :: Grade 10 :: Wayne RESA – SS :: Social Studies

Title: Civics and Government
This one-semester course deepens students’ knowledge of government, with a particular focus on national, state, and local government in America. Through discussion and writing, they practice making reasoned decisions about matters of public policy. Five questions guide students’ study: What are civic life, politics, and government?; What are the origins and foundations of the American political system?; How does the government established by the Constitution function to embody the purposes, values, and principles of American constitutional democracy?; What is the relationship of the United States to other nations and its role in world affairs?; and, What are the roles of citizens in American society? Students engage in investigations, analysis, and arguments about civic life in the Untied States and the role of the United States in the world. In making reasoned and evidentiary-based interpretations, arguments, or decisions, they frame important questions, locate and analyze appropriate evidence and data, consider differing points of view, and apply concepts and principles of American constitutional democracy. Through participating in democratic deliberations around public policy issues students strengthen their understanding of the legal rights and accompanying responsibilities shared by all citizens.

Sequencing of Units within this Course

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. The first two units of this course set the foundation for understanding government in the United States. The remainder of the units can be addressed in any order.

Course Rationale:

Citizens across the political spectrum recognize the need for each generation to become knowledgeable, thinking, and active citizens. This course in civics and government prepares students for their role in a democratic republic by teaching them how to effectively participate in the deliberative and policymaking contexts. In additional to understanding how our system of government works, students develop skills for civic engagement by addressing public problems individually and collaboratively in an effort to maintain, strengthen, and improve the communities to which they belong.

Alignment to Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations

This course is aligned to the Michigan social studies content expectations adopted by the Michigan State Board of Education in 2007, the common core state standards for literacy in history and social studies, and the C3 Framework.

### Conceptual Physics (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 9 :: OS/MAISA :: Science

Title: Conceptual Physics

Conceptual Physics is a course designed to address major topics of the essential physics high school science content expectations in order to provide a solid conceptual base in physics in support of subsequent courses. It will be offered in the freshman year of the physics first course sequence. This course will allocate the time necessary for students to develop conceptual mastery of physics concepts using a well structured, student centered instruction. The course opens with a critical unit called ‘Forces and Energy.’ This unit familiarizes students with nature of scientific inquiry in physics, the reasoning required around measurement and data and the collaborative abilities necessary for the curriculum. The units that follow address the standard topics in physics (e.g. motion, sound and light, electricity and magnetism) as they are applied to interesting contexts (e.g., roller coasters, sports on the moon, study of the universe). The instructional approach of the course is one of constructivist inquiry where students’ master key concepts and skills through the pursuit of focus questions using explorative activities, experimentation, concept writing and substantive classroom discussion.

Sequencing of Units:

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. The earlier units cover mechanics which offers many very tangible hands on investigations and reveals patterns that can be recognized in the later units which are more abstract. The sequence is traditional and therefore aligns well with most commercial textbooks that may supplement the course.

Course Rationale:

Physics is the most fundamental body of knowledge in science. It under girds all other science disciplines and offers tremendous opportunities to apply mathematics..

Alignment:

This course is aligned to the Michigan High School Content Expectations in Physics.

### Earth Systems Science (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: 9 - 12 :: OS/MAISA :: Science

Title: High School Earth Systems Science

Earth Systems Science is a course designed to address the major topics of the Earth Science high school content expectations with a strong emphasis on the practices of scientific empiricism. The optimal placement of this course is in the ninth grade of the modified physics first course sequence. There are two strong reasons for this configuration. First, central Earth Science concepts receive a more complete and sophisticated treatment since incoming students enter with the skills and knowledge from eighth grade physical science. Secondly, an understanding of many major physics and chemistry concepts are enhanced and reinforced as they are applied to questions in Earth Science. In the physics first and transitional course sequences, Earth Systems Science is offered in eighth grade. The course opens with an important unit called ‘Scientific Empiricism in the Earth Sciences’ where students engage in practices that exemplify the approaches and types of questions explored in the Earth Sciences. Students become familiar with the systems perspective used when exploring Earth Science questions. The units that follow proceed through a treatment of astronomy, atmospheric sciences as they relate to global climate change, geology and environmental geology. The instructional approach of the course is one of constructivist inquiry where students master key concepts and skills through the pursuit of focus questions using explorative activities, experimentation, concept writing and substantive classroom discussion. The course should include a problem-based learning approach for topics that relate to practical issues related to Earth Science as well as opportunities to engage students in authentic scientific research.

Sequencing of Units:

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. The first unit provides an overview of the Earth Science fields and focuses on specific skills needed in all areas. The last three units apply science content learned in previous units. Unit 2 on astronomy is placed early to take advantage of the fall sky.

Course Rationale:

The topics in Earth Science are among the most relevant for students as they make decisions throughout their lives that can effect resources, the environment and the economy. The topics provide a rich opportunity to integrate other areas of science as well as social studies and mathematics.

Alignment:

This course is aligned to the Michigan High School Content Expectations in Earth Science.

### Economics :: RESA, MAISA MC3 Units :: Grade 10 :: Wayne RESA – SS :: Social Studies

Title: Economics
This one-semester required course builds economic literacy in students. The overarching problem of scarcity, unlimited human wants pursuing limited resources, is a focal point of the course. Students deepen their prior knowledge of basic economic concepts and apply them to national and international economic systems and problems as a whole. In addition to their study of macroeconomics, students study how interactions of buyers and sellers impact prices and supplies, as well as the role of trade-offs and incentives in consumer and business decisions. Using a variety of media, they compile, analyze, and present statistical data pertinent to economic problems. Students use their economic knowledge to make informed decisions as consumers and to participate as citizens in deciding matters of economic policy. This course is designed to develop students' global perspective in an economically interdependent world.

Sequencing of Units within this Course

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the units are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. For example, the first unit should remain at the beginning of the course, but teachers have flexibility in the order in which they teach microeconomics and macroeconomics. However, teachers should bear in mind that literacy scaffolds have been deliberately designed for the gradual release of responsibility for intellectual work to students. Since the global economy unit contains the most sophisticated and cognitively challenging content, its placement at the end of the course enables students to apply micro- and macro- economic decision-making strategies in a more complex environment.

Course Rationale:

"Effective economic decision making requires that students have a keen understanding of the ways in which individuals, businesses, governments, and societies make decisions to allocate human capital, physical capital, and natural resources among alternative uses. This economic reasoning process involves the consideration of costs and benefits with the ultimate goval of making decisions that will enable individuals and societies to be as well off as possible. The study of economics provides students with the concepts and tools necessary for an economic way of thinking and helps students understand the interaction of buyers and sellers in markets, workings of the national economy, and interactions within the global marketplace." C3 Framework p. 35.

Alignment to Michigan Grade Level Content Expectations

This course is aligned to the Michigan social studies content expectations adopted by the Michigan State Board of Education in 2007, the common core state standards for literacy in history and social studies, and the C3 Framework.

### ELA Writing and Reading 3 (EngageNY May 2016) :: Curriculum, EngageNY :: Grade 3 :: NYSED Modules :: English Language Arts

See attached http://engageny.org/resource/year-long-draft-curricular-maps-in-ela-and-mathematics

### English 10 (OS/MAISA) :: Curriculum, OS/MAISA :: Grade 10 :: OS/MAISA :: English Language Arts

Overview

Throughout the English 10 course students develop their knowledge of textual elements and structures enabling them to engage in close reading of increasingly complex texts. They also develop analytical skills and strategies while moving from a variety of literature genres to a variety of nonfiction genres including foundational documents from American history, multi-media, and visual texts. Students work with literary non-fiction, literature, and informational text types in both their reading and writing. Across the course, students continue to deepen their skills of argumentation with close study and development of claims, counterclaims, line of reasoning, and building evidence-based arguments.

Rationale

The 10th grade course is designed to meet the larger learning goals listed in the Framework for Success in Post-secondary Writing developed by the Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project and Common Core State Standards. The yearlong course is designed to build rhetorical and twenty-first century skills as well as habits of mind and experiences critical for college success. Students develop a learner identity and content knowledge that builds their level of persistence to engage in complex tasks calling upon strong analytical thinking and reasoning.

Scope and Sequence

Careful thought has been given to the order in which the English 10 units are presented. Certain scaffolds have been created based on this order and schools should take care in moving units from their intended placement in the curriculum. For example, Launching the Writer’s Notebook and Independent Reading units are designed to establish certain learner habits, strategies, and practices that help ramp students into later units of analyzing complex texts and writing well-reasoned arguments.

Alignment

The 10th grade course is designed to meet the larger learning goals listed in the Framework for Success in Post-secondary Writing developed by the Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project and the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts.

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